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FSM 133: HOME SCHOOLING NO.3 (+ North American Suppliment)       (FN 242) DO
Copyright: July 1989 By Family Services, Zurich, Switzerland



       If you are travelling & moving from state to state, or country to country, you will not have to be so concerned with school laws & rules, yet as a wise parent you should still take measures to demonstrate that your child is receiving a good education. If you are at a fixed address & under the ever watchful eye of the neighbours you will certainly need to take more action to protect your children & yourself. The following legal information was compiled & summarized from a number of home schooling experts in the U.S. One of the main points they bring out is that it is possible to home school in almost every state in the U.S., but parents need to be informed about how to go about it, & this of course applies to other countries as well.
       It is important to know your country, state & local laws--find out what is allowed & what is working for others. Laws vary & really may not mean a lot when you come down to the local situation. Things that look pretty good on paper can sometimes be impossible in practice, whereas places that seem to be impossible can turn out to be the easiest because of the favorable attitudes of authorities. California is supposed to be a very difficult state to home school in but in practice hundreds do, as it is not too difficult to become a "private school" (except in Los Angeles & L.A. County). Ohio leaves it all up to local school superintendents, which can be good or bad. Michigan, North Dakota & Iowa are hard-nosed & insist on parents being certified teachers. Every situation is different, but in every state there seems to be some way to keep your children out of public schools even if you have to start your own school.
       Regardless of what country you are in, we suggest you faithfully keep the following records to protect your family & to help you have something tangible to show authorities or visitors if requested:

       1. A Daily School Log: With the GP in mind, faithfully keep a good record book of each school day and write down what school work was done, what tests were given, what educational video or audio tapes the children listened to, what outings, recreational activity, games were played, etc. These records can be very helpful in court & some places even require them by law. Photos & videos of your activities can help as well.
       2. A Portfolio of each child's work: From time to time, set aside samples of each child's better work that could be shown to school authorities, social workers, lawyers, etc. as further proof that you are in fact teaching your children & have it together.
       3. Keep an attendance record: It is generally required that children go to school a certain number of days or hours each year, so it is good to have some record of your children's attendance. Of course, since for the most part they live & study at home, their attendance will be pretty good! Your daily log should show your schoolwork, but if you have a group of children it would be good to have a list of their names with a check box by each name for each day of attendance.
       4. A Record of tests and official evaluations: There are several nationally recognized standardized tests for children. Often, you have to have a "professional" teacher or a neutral party give the test to your child. Family children, with just a little help to learn what tests are all about, usually do quite well on these tests. Your state may require that your child be tested from time to time.
       5. A Curriculum outline: This needs to be a subject-by-subject outline of what material you will be teaching your child and how much you plan to cover in a year. Several home school individuals & organizations offer ready-made curriculums. The Curriculum Guide found in School Days is very close to what is required & we hope to be revising it for GP use.
       6. Third Party Reports: Keep a file of any letters or comments that professional people make about your children. Try to get them to put it on letterhead paper and sign their name to it. In some places, if you have a System teacher friend who can check in from time to time and make it look like you are receiving counsel or supervision, it can be a real help.
       Some areas also require immunization records.
       (Ed. Note: Although is it very helpful, advisable & wise to be informed about the various laws in different areas, still we'd like to emphasize the importance of praying for God's leading, wisdom & guidance, as well as counselling with your mate, members of your Home & leadership if possible, to find the best way to apply this information to your particular situation.)


       The following pages are compiled from the writings of Sue Welch, editor of "The Teaching Home" magazine, Dr. Raymond Moore, author of "Home Spun Schools" & "Home Grown Kids", & information provided by the Home School Legal Defense Association. As with all System-based materials, caution must always be exercised in interpreting & applying their counsel to your particular situation.
       This information is not legal advice. It does not take the place of legal counsel from a qualified & informed attorney. The laws governing home education are determined on the state level, as are the compulsory school attendance laws. Therefore they vary from state to state.
       Laws are determined in several ways: They are written in the state's statutes; court cases interpret state & federal laws & determine their constitutionality; & authorities enforce laws strictly or liberally. These factors often change.
       Since home education is relatively new, many states are in the process, or have just completed, new legislation specifically addressing home instruction. States without new legislation apply to home schoolers various sections of their law that might apply to private schools or tutoring. Only three states--Michigan, North Dakota & Iowa--have no legal provision for home instruction. These states have no exemption from teacher certification, but court cases or legislation may change that soon.
       Other state requirements range from meeting standards for a private school, asking permission & having your child tested, or simply notifying the state of your intent to home school.


       Although only a small percent of all home schooling families have legal problems, it is important for you to be informed concerning your state's laws pertaining to home education & how they are presently being interpreted. (Ed. note: NACRO has copies of state laws, as do home school support groups.) You should know your rights & responsibilities, rather than going on hearsay or someone else's interpretation of the law. Ignorance of the law often causes legal problems.
       Before the age of compulsory school attendance, your child does not fall under the jurisdiction of the law, & you need not comply until he does. This may vary from 6 to 8 years of age. Likewise, your older child may no longer be required to attend school past the age of 15 or 16.
       Dr. Raymond Moore adds: "In some cases where there has been hesitancy on the part of school officials, parents have arranged for monitoring of their little home schools by certified teachers. Some home schools have become satellites of public, private, or church schools. The home is registered with the sponsoring school & the parents check periodically with a certified teacher from that school."


       Whether you are dealing with the local school district, lobbying for legislation, or involved in a court case, tact is required in presenting a good Christian testimony. A respectful attitude & careful choice of words also can help you avoid personality conflicts, which often can override the essential issues of home education. Unnecessary & unfortunate problems have resulted when parents are ill-informed &/or "stand up for their rights" in a defiant attitude. Both sides may then dig in their heels for a long & bitter fight of the wills, affecting not only themselves but also others in their community or state. Conversely, a good relationship with government & school officials can develop when families seek to befriend & educate these officials about the nature & concerns of home education.
       Dr. Moore advises: "If you find your superintendent to be resistant or threatening, let him know kindly & firmly that you have not come to this decision lightly. You may even advise him, or utilize someone authoritative to tell him or other concerned judges, prosecutors, state officials, etc., what has been happening in similar court cases around the nation. Decisions have overwhelmingly favored parents, & most have proved an embarrassment not only to the school district but to the school officials themselves. Seldom will any school district that has had this experience repeat it. Such careful preventive action avoids court summons in at least nine out of ten cases.
       "We find that only about ten home schools out of a hundred are threatened with court action. And in eight or nine cases out of the ten where they are challenged, tactful handling of educators, prosecutors & judges will probably quiet the issue. And the parents may never be brought to court."


       A lesson plan book, recording each day's lessons, is valuable evidence if you should have to give an account to the authorities of your home instruction. These records need not be extensive or complicated, but they should be kept consistently. A teacher's plan book, available through most stationery supply houses, will suffice. You can put several children's work on one week's planning sheet. Simply list the book & page number, or the activity for each subject. It is impossible to record all the learning experiences during a day, but don't hesitate to include non-textbook learning as well.
       Dr. Moore says, "Remember, judges are impressed by well-kept scholastic-oriented diaries. Then the burden of proof falls on the state to prove that you are not providing good education for your child. To require that a child must be educated to become a productive citizen is in fact the state's right & obligation."


       The Rutherford Institute offers these practical tips for families contacted by authorities:
       "First, insist that any inquiries regarding your home instruction be in writing & state the precise information desired.
       "Second, avoid personal meetings with officials, such as truant officers or social workers, unless your attorney is present. (Ed. note: It will probably be sufficient to have one or two witnesses present, unless you have found the visitors to be especially threatening.)
       "Third, never make general disclosures of information to authorities except on the advice of legal counsel. If the officer or social worker persists in his inquiries after reasonable demands have been met, consult your attorney. Federal law provides for relief from actions of state authorities that amount to harassment or deprivation of your civil rights."


       Dr. Raymond Moore says: "When you proceed in a business-like manner in dealing step by step with the legal issues, you seldom have to go to court. And it is worth your effort to avoid such a confrontation if you can do it without violating principle. The United States Supreme Court held in the Wisconsin v. Yoder case (Amish) that school officials must apply a three-pronged test whenever faced with religiously based requests for exemption from attendance laws.
       "First, you must have a firm religious or philosophical conviction. Your right to the exercise of this freedom is protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution. But it must be a sincerely held belief. To hold up in court, a conviction is defined as being non-negotiable under pressure or threat of loss. If there is any reasonable hope that you will eventually `cave in' or if you enroll your child in a public or private school `while you get the situation settled', the school officials will sense your lack of conviction & often will continue to threaten, harass, or intimidate you. They may keep after you until you do give up or they can show in court that you have only a preference & not a conviction. Religion in the view of the Supreme Court does not require membership in any particular denomination or sect.
       "Second, you must know why you want to operate a home school. The reasons should be expressed in positive terms, such as: `We feel it is our duty & obligation to be the teachers of, & models for, the social & character values of our children,' `Our children will grow up so quickly we feel it our right & privilege to enjoy their companionship in these early years,' or `We believe on the basis of experience & research that a quiet, cooperative, & family-oriented environment is conducive to the best academic learning & social development.'
       "Third, you must have a written plan of procedure or schedule, you must be prepared to show the materials you use, & you must give other proof that the children are being educated, not neglected. This means that neighbours should not be seeing children running around unsupervised most or much of the day. Neither should they have reason to suspect that children are being left at home alone or that television is the main teacher & baby-sitter."
       The Rutherford Institute comments, "Experience has shown that those families who conscientiously cooperate with governmental authorities in areas of reasonable regulations are less likely to be attacked when they resist governmental encroachment into areas they hold sacred."

North American Supplement to FSM 133
Copyright: August, 1989 by Family Services, Zurich, Switzerland.



       Most state home schooling groups publish a newsletter &/or information that can keep you up-to-date on the legal matters in your state. (Ed. note: However, we would advise you to be cautious about writing these various organizations & getting too involved & "on record" & your name put on a number of Big Brother mailing or "other" lists. It would be a good idea to consult with your local leadership before becoming involved. The addresses in this mag are for your interest & information, & are not necessarily recommendations.)
       The Rutherford Institute has available "The Home Education Reporter," a compilation of laws in all 50 states. Each state's laws & court cases are analysed in detail, along with recommendations for compliance. You may order your state's section for $11.50. Write to: The Rutherford Institute, Box 510, Manassas VA 22110, U.S.A. Updated information is sent to you as changes occur when you order this service. The Rutherford Institute also has state chapters in 18 states that can offer specific legal advice to people in those states.
       Home School Legal Defense Association has available a 50-page report of all the state laws. Each state is listed on one page, summarising the law's requirements & steps to comply. The complete report is available for $20, or you may request your own state's laws free. Order from: Home School Legal Defense Association, PO Box 950, Great Falls, VA 22066, U.S.A. (703) 759-7577. This information will be updated annually for $5.
       Christian Liberty Academy has published two helpful books. Their "Legal Manual" includes suggestions on how to avoid & deal with legal confrontations. Their "National Guide" lists home school attorneys in many states. To order, send $5 for each book to: Christian Liberty Academy, 502 W. Euclid Ave., Arlington Heights, IL 60004, U.S.A.


       What rights under the U.S. Constitution can be applied to home education? Attorney Roger Schurke says, "Although these rights to home school are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution, the assertion is most often made that these rights are premised upon either `liberty' or `privacy' under the 14th Amendment as applied to the states.
       Schurke goes on to say, "We, as Christians, have a much more well-established constitutional right under the 1st Amendment, namely, the right to the `free exercise' of religion. This, of course, includes the right to teach our children Biblical truths & to protect them from influences which we believe may be detrimental to their character. This 1st Amendment right has been considered by the lower courts in the home school context more often than the 14th Amendment right."


       Although going through the process of state level court cases can establish a favorable ruling for home education, they come with great costs & risks. Court cases take a tremendous amount of money, time, energy, stress & sacrifice & should not be entered into hastily or ill-advisedly. It is extremely important to obtain legal counsel from an attorney well-versed on the constitutional issues of home education. The family's home instruction should be such that it could be substantiated in court.--Records or tests should show that the parents were indeed teaching their children well.
       Dr. Moore further advises: "If the unlikely time does come when you are called to court for either a preliminary hearing or an actual trial, make sure that you have done your homework. Most district attorneys, judges, & educators know very little about home schools & how well they perform. You should make every effort to ensure that you have an attorney who is not only capable, but who is sympathetic to the home school ideal. Many lawyers are afraid to take such cases for fear that they will convey the impression that they are against the public schools, & therefore place their reputations in jeopardy in their communities. We do not recommend that you act as your own attorney unless it is absolutely necessary. Investigate as carefully as you can the availability of attorneys who might handle your case, & frankly ask them their estimated costs. Some attorneys who are usually sympathetic to such cases & who are inclined to be more generous & sincerely concerned, may give you a very reasonable estimate. But ask for the estimate in writing. A few other generous lawyers who strongly favor the place of the home school in our educational system sometimes will make no charge at all, or charge only for the costs of travel." (Dr. Raymond Moore, Home Spun Schools)


       The Home School Legal Defense Association provides home educators with prepaid legal protection at a membership cost of $100/year. This includes lawyers' fees (which can amount to about 80 percent of court costs), if that becomes necessary. HSLDA also offers its members legal help when a problem begins & most often can avert a trial by personally intervening on behalf of the member family. If you are considering using their help, you should join HSLDA before you have any contact with local school authorities to insure your HSLDA membership will be accepted. Some advise to obtain this coverage if you live in a state with unfavorable home schooling laws, or if you do not intend to comply with the law. For an application, contact HSLDA. (Address on page 1.)
       (Ed. note: Remember that any involvement with a System service such as this needs to be done prayerfully. If you are considering using this service, read the application form carefully, consider how much information you will have to provide & how much involvement there will be--consider the pros & cons beforehand.)


       According to HSLDA, each home school family has basically three options. If you choose option #1 or #2, you may want to consider obtaining legal protection by membership in HSLDA before you begin home schooling.

OPTION #1: The home school family may choose not to comply with the state's requirement to give notice or seek approval.
       1) The home school family should choose this option based on their sincere religious belief.
       2) HSLDA believes that the First Amendment of the Constitution guarantees the right to home school even without formal state approval.
       3) This option should only be exercised where the family's religious convictions prohibit them from complying or in states where it is impossible for the home school family to receive approval based on the state's standards.
       4) If this option is exercised, do not request your child's records to be transferred from the public school system; this will increase substantially the likelihood of your being investigated by the local superintendent or truant officer. A superintendent will usually assume you've moved if there is no request for records & your child does not begin the next school year. (There is no real educational benefit for your child to have the records transferred.)

OPTION #2: The home school family may choose to comply partially with the state's requirement to send notice or seek approval (i.e., notify the state but not ask permission).
       Under this option, the home school family may send their local superintendent a notice declaring its intent to home school. This notice should include the following:
       a) Statement of intent to home school.
       b) Explanation of why you are home schooling--explain in detail your religious convictions as they relate to providing your children with a thorough Christian education. Be sure to mention the chapters & verses in the Bible upon which you base your convictions.
       c) Express your conviction that you believe the state does not have the authority to approve or disapprove your home school; nonetheless, you will volunteer information regarding your school as a pure formality for their records.
       d) The type of information you volunteer may include: Parents' educational background, description of curriculum, schedule of study, number of children, ages, & a statement that you are planning to have your child tested annually under a standardised test.
       The object of exercising this option is to show a good faith effort on your part to comply with the compulsory attendance law & to recognise the state's interest in knowing your children are being educated & not neglected.

OPTION #3: The home school family may choose to comply completely with the state's home school requirements.
       1) Contact your local home school association to get latest information on the legal atmosphere in your area & how to get along with the local school district.
       Home schoolers in states that have a reasonable statute allowing & regulating home schools should consider complying unless they have religious convictions to the contrary. The more reasonable a state law is, the more you are expected to comply with that law.
       2) Also contact the state Board of Education to get necessary forms, statutes & regulations.

SUMMARY OF HOME SCHOOL LAWS IN THE 50 STATES--(From the Home School Legal Defense Association)

       1. Thirty states have adopted home school statutes or regulations in recent years: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, N. Carolina, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, S. Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, W. Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming. The rules governing home schooling in Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire & New York are state board of education regulations rather than statutes. (A statute is a law enacted by the legislative branch of government. Regulations are a set of rules by the board of education.)
       2. Only three states require all home schools, without exception, to have a certified teacher involved in the instruction at home: Iowa, Michigan & North Dakota.
       3. Higher courts in 5 states have recently ruled that their states' compulsory attendance statutes were void because they were too vague: Georgia, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Wisconsin.
       4. At present, 18 states & the District of Columbia require home schools to be "approved" by the local district or school board: Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah.
       5. Seven states require instruction to be "equivalent" to public school: Connecticut, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Nevada, New Jersey.
       6. Three states require instruction to be "regular & thorough": Delaware, Maryland, Rhode Island.
       7. Two states require instruction to be "comparable" to public schools: Idaho, Michigan.
       8. Six states require teachers to be "competent", "qualified", or "capable of teaching": California, Kansas, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, S. Dakota.
       9. In at least 11 states, home schools may now operate as private or church schools: Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, N. Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas.
       10. In five other states, home schoolers may possibly qualify as private or church schools: Alaska, Delaware, Maine, Ohio, Penn.


       The following table lists states & their basic requirements concerning home schools. This information was compiled from information supplied by the Home School Legal Defense Association. Bear in mind that state laws & policies may be subject to change, changing from one stance to another over short periods, depending on the whims & pressures of legislators & citizens, so please double check your state laws & stay informed of your state laws.


*       States which seem to have the least requirements to home school.
**       States which may be more difficult to home school. This is mainly because they require approval of the state or local school officials. However, in some situations, it not be too difficult to get this approval.
       Compulsory Age 7-16 indicates until their 16th birthday.
State       Compul- Req'd       Teacher       Standard       Test       State       Hme SchCurriculum       Attendance
       sory       # Days       Certif.       Test       Scores       Approv.       =Private       Outline       record              
       Age              Req'd       Required        Req'd       Req'd        School       Required       Required
       Alabama       7-16       180       no(1)       no       no       no(7)       yes       no       yes
       Alaska       7-16       180       no       gr.4,6,8       no       yes       maybe       no       yes
       Am.Samoa       6-18       P.S.(2)       yes       no       no       yes       maybe       yes       no
       Arizona       8-16       175       no(3)       every year       yes       no(7)       no       no       no
       Arkansas       7-16       150       no       every year       yes(4)       no(7)       no       no       no
       California       6-16       175       no       no       no       no(7)       yes       no       yes
       Colorado       7-16       172(23)       no       gr.3,5,7,9,11       yes(5)       no(7)       no       yes       yes
**       Connec.       7-16       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       yes
**       Delaware       5-16       180       no       yes(6)       yes(6)       yes       maybe       no       yes
**       Dist.of Col.       7-16       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       yes
       Florida       6-16       P.S.(2)       no       every year       yes       no(7)       maybe       yes       no
       Georgia       7-16       180(23)       no(8)       gr.3,6,9       no       no(7)       no       yes       yes
*       Guam       5-16       170       no       no       no       no       no       no       no
       Hawaii       6-18       P.S.(2)       no       gr.3,6,8,10       yes       no(7)       no       yes       no
**       Idaho       7-16       P.S.(2)       no(9)       no       no       yes       no       yes       no
*       Illinois       7-16       176       no       no       no       no       yes       no(10)       no
*       Indiana       7-16       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       no       yes       no       yes
**       Iowa       7-16       120 (11)       yes(12)       no       no       yes       no       yes       no
*       Kansas       7-16       180       no       no       no       no       yes       no       no
*       Kentucky       6-16       185       no       gr.3,5,7,10       maybe       no       yes       no       yes
       Louisiana       7-17       180       no       yes       yes       no(7)       no       yes       no
       Maine       7-17       175       no       every year       yes       yes       yes       yes       yes
       Maryland       6-16       180       no       no       no       no(7)       no       yes       no
**       Massach.       ? (13)       180       no       periodic(6)       yes       yes       no       yes       no
       Michigan       6-16       180       yes(14)       no       no       yes(15)       yes       yes       yes
       Minnesota       7-16       170       no       yes       yes       no(7)       no       yes       no
*       Mississippi       6-17       155       no       no       no       no(7)       no       no       no
*       Missouri       7-16       1000 hr.(28)       no       no       no       no       maybe       yes       no(29)
       Montana       6-19       180       no       no       no       no(7)       no       yes       yes(16)
       Nebraska       7-16       1032 hrs.       no       every year       yes       no(7)       yes       yes       yes
**       Nevada       7-17       180       no       1,2,4,5,7,8       no       yes       no       no       yes
**       New Ham.       6-16       180       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       no
       New Jer.       6-16       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       no
       New Mex.       8-?       P.S.(2)       no(17)       every year       yes       no(7)       no       no       yes(16)
       New York       6-16       190       no       every year       yes       no(7)        no       yes       yes
       N.Carolina       7-16       180       no(8)       every year       yes       no(7)       no       no       yes(16,20)
**       N. Dakota       7-16       180(18)       yes       no       no       yes       yes       no       no
**       Ohio       6-18       182       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       no
*       Oklahoma       7-18       180       no       no       no       no       yes       no       yes
       Oregon       7-18       P.S.(2)       no       every year       yes(19)       no(7)       no       no       no
**       Pennsyl.       8-17       180       no(9)       no       no       yes       maybe       no       no
**       Rhode Is.       7-16       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       yes
**       S.Carolina       6-17       180(24)       no(8)       every year       yes       yes       no       yes       no
**       S.Dakota       6-16       P.S.(2)       no       every year       yes       yes       no       yes       no
       Tennessee       7-16       180(23)       no(8)       gr.2,5,7,9       yes       no(7)       no       yes       yes(16)
*       Texas       7-16       175       no       no       no       no       yes       yes       no
**       Utah       6-18       P.S.(2)       no       no       no       yes       no       yes       yes
       Vermont       7-16       175       no       no       no(6)       no(7)       no       yes       no(20)
       Virginia       5-17       P.S.(2)       no       every year       yes(21)       no(7)       no       yes       no
       Washing.       8-18       900 hrs.       no       every year       yes       no(7)       no       no       no
       W. Virginia       7-16       180       no(8)       every year       yes(21)       no(7)       no       yes       no
       Wisconsin       6-18       875 hrs.       no       no       no       no(7)       no       yes       no(22)
       Wyoming       7-16       175       no       no       no       no(7)       no       yes       no(22)
(Footnotes for this Chart are on the next page.)


       (1) Teacher certification needed if home operates as a private school.
       (2) Same as Public schools
       (3) Parent teacher must pass reading, grammar, math proficiency exam.
       (4) Test scores must be no more than 8 months below expected grade level.
       (5) Test results must be above the 13th percentile*.
       (6) Optional means of assessment are available.
       (7) Local superintendent must be notified.
       (8) High School or GED Diploma required.
       (9) Some school districts require certification.
       (10) Voluntary "statement of assurance" may be submitted.
       (11) 30 days each quarter.
       (12) Teacher certification required, but is not being enforced during the 1988-89 school year, pending investigation.
       (13) Established by board of education.
       (14) Or a 4-year degree.
       (15) A 1986 ruling in Smolls v. Runkel indicated that home schoolers do not need to seek approval of the state. (But Mat.9:29)
       (16) And immunisation records.
       (17) But requires a bachelor's degree from a college or university; but this requirement can be waived by state superintendent.
       (18) For 5.5 hours a day.
       (19) Test results must be over the 15th percentile*.
       (20) Children of not more than 2 different families.
       (21) Test results must be above the 40th percentile*.
       (22) Children of not more than one family involved in the home school.
       (23) Average of 4 hrs./day.
       (24) Average of 4.5 hrs./day.
       (25) Average of 3 hrs./day.
       (26) Average of 5 hrs./day.
       (27) Test scores must be above the 30th percentile*.
       (28) At least 600 hrs. in 3 R's & 3 G's, & at least 400 of the 600 hrs. in the regular home school location.
       (29) Can be up to 4 families.

* Percentile does not refer to the percentage of correct answers (as in 5 correct out of 10=50%), but rather it indicates that the child scored better than a certain percentage of other students.--A percentile of 30 means he scored better than 30% of the students. So in judging by percentile scores, they are not considering how much an individual child knows, but how much he knows in comparison to other students at his age or grade level.


        State home-education organisations can help keep you informed concerning your state's current laws, proposed legislation, referrals to local support groups & events.

Alabama Home Educators
819 Joryne Drive
Montgomery AL 36109

Alaska Private & Home Educator's Association
Box 70
Talkeetna AK 99676

Christian Home Educators of Arizona
3015 S.Evergreen Road
Tempe AZ 85282

Christian Home Education Association
PO Box 501
Little Rock AR 72203

Christian Home Educators Association
PO Box 28644
Santa Ana CA 92799-8644

Homes Offering Meaningful Education
1015 S. Gaylord Street #226
Denver CO 80209

Emanual Homestead Home Education Resource Center
PO Box 355
South Woodstock CT 06267

Tri-State Home School Network
PO Box 7193
Newark DE 19714-7193

Florida at Home
8715 Clubhouse Estates Drive
Orlando FL 32819

Christians Concerned for Education
Rt. 3, Box 1180
Lafayette GA 30728

Hawaii Home-Based Educators
45-681 Kuahulu Place
Kaneohe HI 96744

Idaho Home Educators
Box 4022
Boise ID 83711-4022

Illinois Christian Home Educators
PO Box 261
Zion IL 60099

Indiana Association of Home Educators
PO Box 50524
Indianapolis IN 46250

Iowa Home Educators Association
PO Box 213
Des Moines IA 50301

Teaching Parents Association
949W. 51st Street, N.
Wichita KS 67204

Kentucky Christian Home School Association
1301 Bridget
Fairdale KY 40118

Citizens Concerned for Education
1420 Prentiss
New Orleans LA 70122

Maine Homeschool Association
PO Box 3283
Auburn ME 04210

Maryland Assoc. of Christian Home Education Organisations
PO Box 359
Burtonsville MD 20866

Mass. Home Learning Association
PO Box 248
Harvard MA 01451

Family Centered Education
4840 Sequoia
Jackson MI 49201

Minnesota Association of Christian Home Educators
Box 188
Anoka MN 55303

Mississippi Home School Support Group
21550 Darling Road
Pass Christian MS 39571

Families for Home Education
Rt. 1, Box 234
Independence MO 64050-9712

Homeschoolers of Montana
PO Box 40
Billings MT 59103

Nebraska Home Educators Assoc.
5000 Grand View Lane
Lincoln NE 68521
Nevada Home Schools, Inc.
PO Box 21323
Reno NV 89515

New Hampshire
Christian Home Educators of New Hampshire
Rt. 2, Box 292
Hillsboro NH 03244

New Jersey
New Jersey Unschoolers Network
2 Smith Street
Farmingdale NJ 07727

New Mexico
Christian Home Educators
7417 Santa Fe Trail NW
Albuquerque NM 87120

New York
Loving Education at Home
PO Box 332
Syracuse NY 13205

North Carolina
North Carolinians for Home Education
Box 5182 Emerywood Station
High Point NC 27262

North Dakota
North Dakota Home School Association
PO Box 539
Turtle Lake ND 58575

Christian Home Educators
PO Box 1224
Kent OH 44240

Oklahoma Christian Home
Educators Association
PO Box 102
Jenks OK 74037

Oregon Christian (Home) Education Association Network
2515 NE 37th Avenue
Portland OR 97212

Parent Educators of Pennsylvania
1071 Pocopson Creek Road
West Chester PA 19382

Rhode Island
Parent Educators of Rhode Island
Box 546
Coventry RI 02816

South Carolina
Piedmont Home Education Association
111 Robinwood Lane
Pelzer SC 29669-9133

South Dakota
Western Dakota Christian Home Schools
8016 Katrina Court
Rapid City SD 57702

Tennessee Home Education Association
3677 Richbriar Court
Nashville TN 37211

Home-Oriented Private Education for Texas
PO Box 402263
Austin TX 78704

Utah Christian Home Schooling Association
3190 South 4140 West
West Valley City UT 84120

Vermont Home Schoolers Assoc.
RSD 1, Box 150
Jeffersonville VT 05464

Home Educators Association of Virginia
Box 1810
Front Royal VA 22630

Washington Homeschool Report
10029 48th Ave. West
Everett WA 98204

West Virginia
West Virginia Home Educators Association
PO Box 266
Glenville WV 26351

Wisconsin Parents Association
PO Box 2502
Madison WI 53701

Homeschoolers of Wyoming
Box 2197
Nills WY 82644

Alberta Home Education Assoc.
2015--74th Street
Edmonton, Alberta T6K 2L3

Caution about involvement with system home schooling organisations

       A NOTE OF CAUTION concerning involvement with Home Schooling organisations & support groups: They are generally Church or System Christians, & are fighting for Home Schooling in each state, & they have made a lot of progress in legalising Home Schooling, for which we are very thankful. They also have some interesting & good material available for Home-Schoolers. However, because they are usually Church-oriented, they are probably traditionally anti-YKW. So keep your security in mind in any dealings you may have with them. Dr. Raymond Moore said, "Home school support groups will be the first to expose truant & derelict families who are pretending to teach systematically at home." (--or perhaps "unapproved" Christians posing as respectable Christian Home-Schoolers?) They have now quite a sophisticated home schooling network, magazines, newsletters, legal counsellors, etc., which could easily be used for or against us. Beware! Don't be naive or overestimate the depth of their friendship & "Christianity". (John 16:2) GB&KY wise as serpents & harmless as doves (Mat.10:16)

Copyright 1996 The Family