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Copyright: August 1989 By Family Services, Zurich, Switzerland

Teaching Writing!--A "How to" Class Given to Teens & Teachers at the Heavenly City School!

       Our goal here is to encourage you teachers that you can teach Writing (or any basic class) by simply following the Childcare Handbook Curriculum Guide & specific classes on the subject. That's all I've ever done over the years, all the work is done for you, so all we need to do is follow the class instructions. So let's say I just got the assignment of teaching a Childcare group here. After real prayer & Psa.37:5, where do I start next?
       I get ahold of this FC Childcare Handbook II (School Days I), & I look up "Writing" in the index in the back. If you look in the Table of Contents, you don't get all the specific pages on Writing, but the index has several different entries & articles on Writing. You'd find the main class on Writing in the Table of Contents, but you find the full counsel on Writing by looking in the index.

Grandpa's Quote on Handwriting

       First I look up the Curriculum Guide on Writing on pg.5 & find the age group I'll be teaching, for specific guidelines. Does anybody know the Grandpa quote on handwriting? It's on pg.32 in the Childcare Handbook, School Days II, number 15. "We don't have to be so finicky about people's penmanship, just so it can be read, as long as it's legible & clear." Dad has said penmanship was his worst subject in school.
       We just want our children to be able to write clearly & legibly (able to be read). That's why I reviewed with all the teens here how to write, because their writing, mostly the boys, was not clear & it was very difficult to read. So I told them if they didn't want to have more Writing classes, they should strive to improve their writing, & they did! It usually just takes a little more effort, but sometimes a complete review of how to write is necessary, because there is a standard & a "right" way, according to our teacher's manual, the CCHB!

Pre-writing Prep

       Next, in our Childcare Handbook index under "Preparation", let's turn to pg.47. This is in the class "Teaching Tips" (starting on pg.40), a very, very good class to review as often as you can! Number 13 under "Coordination": "The child needs to learn not only the coordination skills of moving his body & walking, running & balancing"--there's a good activity, balancing--"but he also needs to develop the fine muscle coordination that he will need in writing, moving gracefully & using his hands & other parts of his body in special ways. Encouraging a child to do physical exercises is important. Good exercises involve running, jumping, crawling"--that's another form of activity we don't do much--"rolling, hopping, throwing, dodging & so on." Exercises develop the fine muscle coordination in preparation for learning to write.
       "The more refined movements come with practice. It's good to have him practice balancing by walking on a small board or line, perhaps even carrying something at the same time. Place a piece of tape on the floor in a circle or line." Now this is to develop the coordination of his whole body, because the child has to be able to control his body before he can control these three fingers to hold a pencil. So even you toddler teachers should be working on general muscle coordination, which will set the stage for fine muscle coordination. Also, some children just have it naturally at a very young age, often girls in particular start to walk early.
       "Now you might have him do water pouring exercises, or use beans at first. Increase the weights & amounts he has to handle as he improves." Many people, you see, don't understand the reasons behind the Montessori method teaching of "practical life"--sweeping, mopping, dishwashing, dusting etc.! It looks like they're playing dolly house all day. But in teaching children to pour from a pitcher, you're developing their fine muscles, because it's very difficult for a child to manipulate something weighty in their hands. So if you practice pouring beans with the toddlers, the 1 to 2 year olds, it teaches them to pour the right way without spilling, & also develops their hand grip, coordination & balance.

Setting a Good Sample

       Do you teachers know the right way to hold the pitcher? Many adults take the pitcher by the handle & pick up the cup with their other hand & pour in the air. So when the toddlers or children try to pour their milk or water, they do the same & spill it everywhere! Children must be taught the proper way to pour--to hold the handle firmly with one hand, & with the other hand placed under the pouring spout, slowly tip it over so the spout is directly over the bowl or cup on the table. You pour slowly until the bowl is full, then place the pitcher back down on the tray. We shouldn't pick the pitcher up off the table & sling it in the air to pour with one hand, because the children try to imitate what we do, but they can't. They must be taught by example.
So teachers & helpers should learn & practice the proper way to pour things, to set the right sample. After pouring the beans into a bowl, the toddler can then pour the beans from the bowl back into the pitcher, over a tray. Teach him to place the lip of the bowl full of beans on the lid of the pitcher, not up in the air where it will spill everywhere. This pouring exercise teaches balancing, plus fine tuning the muscles & grip, & hand & eye coordination, you see?
       "Using simple tools & utensils is important. Everyday activities, such as sorting..." (separating the crayons from the pencils, separating the paper clips from the brads, separating the spoons from the forks--little children can do all those), "& carrying trays & similar objects are surprisingly good exercises to help prepare the child for writing & even for reading." These are toddler teaching tips which we specialise in in the Family, so that by the time we teach a child to hold a pencil, he's learned to coordinate his finger muscles & is ready to learn to write! PTL!

Learning with Games

       Okay, let's read "Part C--Eye & Hand Skill. Eye & hand skills are an essential part of the early education of any child"--"essential" means it's absolutely necessary--"& without it, he will have difficulty in many, many areas. Building things that need good hand coordination is ideal, one slip & it will fall down. Remember building card houses at a very young age, trying over & over again to get it higher & higher before they fell down? There are many skill games." Here again, games make learning fun, like "Pick-Up-Sticks". You hold the chop sticks together, you drop them on the floor & the children try to pick them up one by one without moving the other sticks. "Monkey in a Barrel"--those are things that link together, you can do the same with clothes pins--"or even setting dominos on their ends in a row. If you knock one down, they will all fall over. There are a number of good games involving, for example, guiding a marble across a course & trying to keep it from falling into a hole, or trying to get several marbles into an arrangement of holes."
       Why do you suppose some of this text is in bold print?--For emphasis! When you want to review this class, you can read the bold writing. "Look for exercises that have this challenge built into them & that make the child discipline his coordination skills."

Fun-Schooltime with Games!

       "Prepare your child for writing by giving him lots of little exercises for the thumb, index & second finger of the right hand--the three fingers we hold a pencil with."
       This is how we hold a pencil. This has to be taught to children. So any exercise that uses these three fingers together is a help. When children pick up puzzle pieces by a knob, they can be taught not to keep their other fingers up. We can guide their hand to learn to work with these three fingers when they pick up small knobs or toys."
       "Encourage the child to grasp small objects with these fingers & have him hold pencil-like objects as you do to write. Puzzles & toys with small knobs are good."

The Importance of How-To's

       Children have to be shown the proper way, we believe in the clinical method of practical how-to's. We need to instruct "how to", like how to pour. You can say, "When you don't spill any more beans, then we start pouring orange juice!" That would be lots of fun!--Or using tongs (the instrument used to pull baby bottles out of the hot water). You hold tongs with these three writing fingers, which develops these fingers. You can pick up pieces of foam with tongs, & sort the colours into an ice tray, or egg carton.
       Next I look in my index & it says on pg.51, "Developing Writing Skills: A child should be well prepared for writing by encouraging the fine movements of his hands & fingers." So teachers, when our visitors see your toddlers working with tongs & puzzles, you can tell them, "Our 1 to 1-1/2-year-olds are developing the fine movements of their hands & fingers in preparation for learning to write!"
"Exercises to develop coordination of the fingers to prepare for using a pencil can range from using kitchen tongs to place cubes of sponge into ice cube trays"--that's sorting & coordination--to "Using tweezers to put paper clips from one bowl to another, or puzzles with small knobs, or perhaps more precise geometric shapes."
       Now this is a very good part of this class: "Watch closely how the child sits*, holds his paper & pencil** & moves his hand." (*See pg.136 in CCHBII for proper sitting position & position of paper. **See pg.135 in CCHBII for correct way to hold pencil.) So far they've told us it's essential to practice & now they're telling us to watch closely. "Teach him to relax, show him that the pencil is very light & that he can be gentle with it." If they're all tense here, it makes their hand very tired. Remember in school when your hand would cramp & hurt? Well, writing can be lots of fun, but it's difficult & strenuous for them if they haven't practiced these motions. "You may encourage his skill in handling a pencil by having him practice some basic strokes: Spirals, backward or forward circles, simple short & tall strokes. Making patterns helps them in judging distances."

Keep It Uniform

       Here's a key, "Uniformity is the goal in these." Patterns, he's saying here, have to be all the same. If the child is going to be doing writing patterns, we can teach him to draw them in a uniform way & size. Just as you don't want the child to write letters of all different sizes, even in pre-writing exercises you want him to write everything a uniform size. (Shows pre-writing exercises on whiteboard.)
What I've used to start with for first writing exercises was, "Can you draw straight, tall soldiers on the line? You can fill this line with straight, tall soldiers! Write top to bottom, top to bottom, top to bottom", & you show them how, that you want them to fill the space from the top line to the base line. Otherwise, they'll draw their soldiers real fast & sloppy.
       What you're trying to teach them is uniformity, that it's all uniform--so how pertinent to draw soldiers! Ha! It may take several lessons & practice to learn to draw good straight lines. "Now since you've learned to draw such straight soldiers, you can give each one a hat & shoes. Let's make a straight, tall soldier with a hat on top--left to right--& shoes, draw a line--left to right. Very good! Now you do that!"--And you've written a capital "I". Not just any size they want, & not too fast, but they have to have a goal & guidelines. It needs to be all the same size & on a ruled paper or board with a base line, middle line & top line.
       (Question: Can they trace?) Yes, I think tracing is helpful & important. Sometimes teachers make a dot pattern to trace, & this is very encouraging for beginners, to follow the dots. Our beginners can go very fast, "Yes, I can do soldiers, there!" But if you show them to write slowly, & that you want really straight soldiers top to bottom, & then you dot the outline for them, or you just trace the letter very lightly with pencil on their paper, it makes it much easier, especially for beginners.
       The children have to be taught the proper strokes & directions to write every letter. That's very important, & this class explains this to us, that we have to instruct the basics of writing, & help them keep that standard, or they can learn it wrong. In our Childcare Handbook, we have a pattern of pre-writing exercises in the Curriculum Guide. (See "Writing Right!" video coming on the circuit soon, D.V.!)

On the Line

       Now Number 4, some points about writing, on pg.52 it says, "It's not necess-ary to use any special lined paper", yet we have found that it is very important that they do write on lines, until they're about 15 years old! It's very important, even essential! Now, many of our teens in this particular School have good writing, the girls especially, but I think they've had quite a lot of school. But most of our Family kids have not had that much schooling, & I still would highly recommend lined paper for all ages, for clarity & legibility!
       "Children learn from the beginning to work on lines & go from left to right. You may have a little wider space between lines for younger children", but you don't want to make the space too big. I use very big writing lines when I teach on the blackboard so you can see it, I write big for beginners especially. But when they write on paper, it's very difficult for a beginner to write too large, because then it's no longer writing, but art. If I asked you to come draw a big circle, you probably wouldn't be able to do it very circular. So for a small child, the lines should not be too big, but 3/4 of an inch or so is good. For teaching, yes, we need to have big lines so that your class can see the teacher's writing on the board. You can actually buy lined school paper for writing for beginners & intermediate & advanced. You can usually buy grade-level lined paper.
       Learning writing, by the way, takes a lot of time. It takes many lessons to teach writing & lots of practice, because they graduate from these beginners' patterns & coordination exercises & they have to learn to hold their pencil, they have to control the pencil before the pencil can do anything!
       Some common mistakes made in teaching Writing is either we don't instruct children (or teens) to write on properly lined paper, or we do use lined paper, but don't tell them how to follow the guide lines. So be sure to specify that the black bottom line is the base line, & that's covered in our printing class later.
We should instruct with standard terminology, use the proper teaching terms from the start. (For beginners:) "Stand your soldiers straight & tall on this bold, black base line. Here's the sky, the top line, & here's the grass, the base line. The middle line is here, it's red. In Writing make sure that your roundy, roundy letters bounce off the red middle line & they rest on the base line. The red line is your middle line, it shows you where to draw the lower case or little letters. The black line is your firm foundation, your base, this is the bottom base line."

Guide & Correct

       If you don't show children how & give them verbal & visual guides in their writing, then they're going to write like this: (Demonstrates on the board uneven, illegible writing.) See? There is no absolute or standard, because they haven't been guided to set the letters within the lines. "Tall letters reach the top! Little letters to the middle, & they all sit nice & evenly right on the base line." That's the main tip in teaching writing, is to give them instruction as to how to form their letters, & guidelines on where to write on the lines. You can point out to them, "Oh, this poor letter is a little too skinny, he needs to come up to touch the middle line & fill out his space. And oh my, is this `g' a bit too tall? It needs to just bounce off the middle line & its monkey tail hangs just below the base line. Now that's a pretty good tail!" Guide them & correct their writing, so that they see that they have that much space to fill & they know exactly how big the letters should be. When we pointed this one lesson out to the teens about following the guide lines, their writing improved immediately!
       "B--One of the best ways to teach the child how to print & write is to give him a pencil & show him how. Sandpaper letters are great, but don't get so involved with them that you forget why the child is doing them." You know what sandpaper letters are? The Montessori method uses large sandpaper letters glued on cards & the child is supposed to trace the letter according to your directions with these two writing fingers--the index & tallest finger. They trace the letter according to your instruction with their two fingers to learn the proper direction of writing. One problem is if you just give the child the letters without instruction, they play around with them & they don't learn the proper direction without your verbal instruction.
       You can use alphabet puzzles, the same way as sandpaper letters, & finger or pencil-trace around the alphabet puzzle pieces. So again, they have to be instructed, as it says, "show him how." Proper instruction & how-to will prevent writing problems in the future! This is brought out in part C. "The precision"--that means the exactness, the uniformity, the skill--"you instil into a child's life is often what you can expect to come out of him. Be very specific about handwriting." That's where we've maybe not been consistent enough. Tell the child exactly where & how & even why. Have the child repeat to you what he's doing as he prints.
       "For example, write `b' on the board. Ask the child what it is, then begin to question him about it. `Where do we begin?' Try not to only say, `On the left hand side', but use some part of the room to describe & guide, `On the side nearest the window', for example, as children have a hard time with left & right." To teach children left & right, you can repeatedly show them, "See, you write with your right hand! (Unless they are left-handed!) Which hand do you write with?" And when putting on shoes, ask, "Which hand do you write with?" And they go, "This hand!" "Right! You write with your right hand! So which foot is on that same side?" "The right foot!" "Yes, there's your right foot, on your right side!" Then write a big label right on the inside sole of their shoe, & they'll learn! My, how they love to learn!
       Putting a little watch or bracelet on their right hand helps a lot, to differentiate when learning! Or putting dots or hearts on the two inside sides of the shoes helps so that the shoes "kiss" each other when it's time to put shoes on. "Which is left & right?" "Well, are your hearts kissing? Match your feet to your shoes now. But if your hearts don't kiss, then switch the shoes around."

Describing Letters By Their Sound

       (Back to printed class:) "Is `b' a tall or short letter? It is tall! What kind of stroke does it begin with? A tall stroke down, good. Let's make a tall stroke down first. Start just below the top line. You don't usually start smack on the line above, you start just a bit below the line above. Make a tall stroke downwards to the base line." There's our terminology, "base line" in bold. "Now, back up nearly to the middle line, back up the same road", I say, "& bounce off the middle line & make a bouncy, bouncy roundy belly of a `b'." I try in teaching writing to describe the letter with the sound of the letter. I don't know if I can explain that, LHM.
       "Okay, let's write a `b'! Let's be happy about writing a bouncy, bubbly `b' with a big belly! Do you have a burden? Let's start with a tall, straight soldier line down, straight down. Then bounce up & bounce off the middle line & bring it around for a bouncy ball for Billy's big bouncy belly." All I'm trying to show them is the direction, then they copy me. "Okay, now your turn", & they usually say the same thing you said & remember it!
       "Rrrrr", my child always liked r's because of the big word "ricochet": "`r' is a short stem down. Right on the middle line make a nice short stem down. Now back up the same road & ricochet off the roof!" You know what "ricochet" is? It's the bouncing-off effect, like when you shoot a gun & the bullet bounces off the rocks, "pow, pow, pow, pow", so the "r" ricochets off the roof!
       You know, sometimes it's better when teaching, rather than just giving the name of the letter, to also give the sound of the letter, like, "Now let's write `haa'", or "now let's write a `buh', & "now we'll write an `rrr', now we write an `mmm'."
I read one time about a woman who had very high success in teaching writing & reading through sounds because she made poems out of everything she said. She used a story or rhyming sound in her teaching tactics, so it really interested the kids. Like with the letter "haa" (h), She'd say, "Harry hurried home huffing, haa, haa, haa."--That's how she taught "h" in reading & writing, as I recall. "Harry hurried home huffing, haa, haa, haa." So if you can try sometimes to make the sound of the letter as you go, it not only makes it interesting & fun, but they learn phonetics.

Letter Reversal

       "It is said that we are the ones who teach the children most of their problems. Reversing letters is very common in young children who have not had a lot of good physical exercise & experience with things." It's very common for kids to write backwards "a", "b", "p", "m".--The m's they draw like this--humpity, humpity, stem.
       Anytime you do something wrong or write out a mistake, you should always correct or delete it & not let your students continue to see it. Any mistakes, anything that's not done right, get rid of it so that they only see the proper, positive answer, or otherwise you're not reinforcing good learning. Any time a mistake is made on display, try to correct it, that's why we correct our children's papers, & we try to do it very nicely. Maybe just tick it, especially if it's an older child, just try to make a little red line through it or above it to show that it's wrong, but don't "x" it out. Then have them correct it, if they can or you write it out correctly for them. If you are writing on the blackboard & they have made a mistake or you make a mistake, get rid of the mistake to accentuate the positive.
"Be careful not to reinforce any confusion about direction in the children's mind. When you point to words, cross & dot letters, work in the direction you write." You yourself have to set the sample.
In printing, you dot your "i" immediately & cross your "t" immediately. You cross the letter as you print, you dot the "i" or "j" as you go. In cursive writing, you go back to dot the "i's" & cross the "t's" after the full word is written. Children have to be taught that, & shown that you cross your "t's" from left to right. We always work in English from left to right, & if children don't know left & right, we say "move in the direction you write."
       If I were going to be teaching a class, I shouldn't start writing in the middle of the board. I should start here teaching on the left side & fill in from left to right. This way I'm reinforcing proper writing, I'm setting the proper sample.
       "Watch the child carefully to catch him starting any reversals. Stop him & have him do it again in the direction that we write. Teach & reinforce the idea of direction." That is very, very good, that's very important. That's just one paragraph, but it can save you teaching a child the wrong way the rest of his life.
       Next it says, "Hear it, say it, write it & see it." This is brought out time & again in this class called "Teaching Tips", that we teach our children through using as many senses as possible. That's how they present sight reading in this book, & spelling, & writing --"Hear it, say it, write it, see it."
       "Teachers fail to realise the importance of teaching the correct formation of the letters from the very start. Unless the children learn from a good example to begin with, they will not recognise the correct symbol for the sound, & once motor patterns & muscle habits are formed, they're difficult to correct."
       Once you've formed a bad habit, it's very difficult to correct it. If you don't catch children when they're writing or counting wrong & correct them every time, then you are reinforcing wrong information. So you should always correct it, & nicely, of course. If they count "12, 13, 15, 16, 17", you have to correct it, or they don't think it's wrong, you see?

Continue to Reinforce Proper Direction

       So what are our points so far? We have to teach them the right direction, we have to correct anything that's not right, & we have to set the proper sample, right? There are many different ways to print, but the most important thing is to be consistent & do it right! Our standard is right here in the class called "Printing", & it has the ABC list right here, & that's our simple & easy standard to follow for print style. Also for script, or cursive writing, in the next class is our standard to follow.
       Back to pg.53 under i, it says, "Be specific about writing, tell the children clearly what you expect from them." It says, "Avoid copying too much." It goes on to say, "Direction is very important in writing." Number 6 on pg.54, our last note here, "As a teacher, you must be very careful not to confuse them by crossing your `t's' backwards." When you have a "t", you don't want to go about it right to left. You have to cross your "t" left to right. You never start from the bottom, up. You always print top to bottom, left to right. Think of a "t" when you're teaching writing & remember, our teaching always is top to bottom, left to right. See? Anytime writing is a stem, a stick, it's always top to bottom in every letter, you see? And it's always left to right.
       "Don't point to words or pictures or do things that have the children's eyes move the wrong way, always have their eyes move left to right." When you're pointing things out, direct them left to right. You have to direct them, you understand? Direction is a key here. Reinforce the proper direction. You have to point the proper direction. You have to point out things in the right order, left to right.
       If they draw a line from one picture to another, insist that they draw it from left to right. If you have a puzzle that says, "Match the foot to the sock & the apron to the dress & the door to the house"--matching things--don't connect it right to left, always connect left to right. Draw the line from left to right to match objects. Always move in the proper direction of writing, because that's what that puzzle or that exercise is teaching you.
       "Dyslexia is the term for children reversing things." Like b, d, e, p, q, 3, 4, 5, 6 & so on. "If the child uses sandpaper letters, watch him carefully that he forms each letter exactly right. When children begin to write simple single lines, give them exact instructions on making each letter." This class is very specific, isn't it?
       Now let's go to pg.135. They show you the right way to hold your pencil. "We would like to emphasise that it is important that the child learns to form his letters correctly from the beginning." "Repetition is the law of memory, but be sure that what he is repeating is exactly what you want him to learn."

Tidy Table, Good Posture

       Another good point, "Encourage the child to always keep his work area tidy." You'll find that if you sit your child down to do writing exercises on this table now, his writing will be very messy. But if you clear the way & say, "A nice, neat, clear table makes nice, neat, clear work. A nice, clear table will give you a nice, clear brain." That's very true, that their environment affects their output, you see? It's very important that they have a good clear desk. I like to tell my children, "Okay, we'll put your notebook in front of you, lay your pencil at the top of your notebook & fold your hands, & I have something to tell you.", so they won't be fidgeting with it all!--Which is very distracting! I try to tell them just where to put their paper, just where to put their pencil, exactly where to put everything, & they like that!
       Now we're getting to the "how-to". Here's exactly how to sit, which is also very important. If their feet are dangling, or kicking the table, they're not going to have neat writing. Posture is very important.

Dance Exercises

       Did you know that in System school, if children are poor writers, they give the children special classes in dancing for eye & hand & foot coordination, because the brain, of course, directs the hands & the feet. So they teach special little dances & movements to move the feet, just little tap steps, like, "Make your feet go tap, tap, tap. Make your hands go clap, clap, clap. Right foot first, left & then, round about & back again." Hurrah! Clap for me! (Everybody claps!) Ha! So that's a helpful exercise in preparation for writing. You can put on music & tap your foot to the music & then you clap your hands to the music, then you sway your arms to the music, to help slow learners in coordination & even writing. (See Music & Rhythm classes in CCHBII)

Two O'Clock, Balls & Sticks

       The Spalding method of Reading & Writing, used here in our Childcare Handbook (see pg.136 of CCHBII) uses the face of a clock. "Have the face of a clock in your room, close to your writing board." On pg.277 of the Childcare Handbook II there's a clock you can xerox to put next to your writing board. You can hang it right there with a little tape, right on your writing blackboard. Then you point out what is two o'clock on the clock & show the kids that all the "ball" letters start at two o'clock in writing.
       All writing is just made up of balls & sticks, did you know that? Look at the letters on that alphabet chart on pg.136 of CCHBII. Don't you see lots of "balls" & "sticks"--circles & straight or slanted lines?
       So look at these roundy letters. How many roundy letters look like a ball? "a" is like a ball. What else has a roundy to it? (Fam: "o") "o" is a roundy! I show the children by writing very slowly. "b" is a ball with a stick. What else is roundy? "c" is a roundy ball. It's kind of like half a roundy, isn't it? "d" has a roundy. Does "d" have a ball for a belly, too? "e" starts roundy like a ball, doesn't it? "g" has a roundy etc. You can go through the alphabet & show how all writing is made of balls & sticks, or stems!
       What about sticks? What letters have sticks? (Fam: Capital "A".) Yes, a capital "A" starts here at the top of the Apache Indian teepee, slant top to bottom, slant top to bottom. "A" looks like an Apache tent. It's two sticks with a cross-bar in the middle, left to right. (Fam: "v"?) Yes, a "v" looks like a vase going down, doesn't it? Very slanted line down, very slanted line down, & we meet in the middle with just sticks for a "v"! So all of our writing motions are balls & sticks, see?
       For capital M:--"A Mighty Mountain Man climbs! Are you ready, Mountaineers? Move a tall straight line down, top to bottom. Next, Make a Mountain valley `v'--small slant in, & another very vast valley `v' slant up.--Next the Mountain cliff down again, top to bottom.--Magnificent! My, My, My! Marvellous M!"
       You can say, "So can you write sticks? Yes, all of you can write soldiers on the line, right? All of you made good tall soldiers on your paper, so I know you can draw sticks. What about balls?" Now teachers, you see how pre-writing exercises help to teach the children to write sticks & balls! "Make beach balls on the base line". Practice in your pre-writing exercises with lined paper & show them where to put the balls & where to line up the sticks, or stems!
       Another common mistake in writing, apart from not staying within the lines, is not starting the balls or roundies at two o'clock. If you don't stay within the lines & you don't get this two o'clock-on-the-clock motion (see CCHBII, pg.136), your writing cannot be read, it is illegible. Those two keys: Stay on the lines & learn this two o'clock motion, & your writing will be very easy, especially if you have learned balls & sticks!
       Practice your balls & sticks, practice writing in the "guidelines", repeat consistent terms--the base line & the middle line & the top line, use those early coordination skills & developments & exercises, teach them to hold the pencil right--all these tips we've learned--but basically the problem areas, the areas where we make mistakes in, are staying within the lines & getting this full round motion.
       This is hardest motion in writing, this ball or roundy. That's why for beginners the lines on their paper should be very bold & bright, so they can see exactly where to put their balls & sticks. If the child doesn't write very neatly, maybe he needs paper with more space between the lines, or more bold guidelines to follow. We give them big reading words so they can see clearly, but they can't write real big. If it gets too big it almost turns into art work & is very difficult.
       Now let's get that roundy down, shall we? On their writing paper I make a little notch or dot at two o'clock. When we practice our roundies, that dot is our starting point. Now, they need to learn this when drawing "balls" the right way in pre-writing! When I have them draw balls, I will put down a little starting dot there on their paper so they know to start drawing their ball there. I show them, "This is where we start."--I have to show them how to make those balls, right? "Start at two o'clock on the clock & bounce off the top line, round & round & round. Now bounce off the base line, go back up to two o'clock." I talk about it as I draw it, & they say the same thing.
       All that to say, I follow exactly what it says in this book, the class tells me what to say, it's in quotes, see? (Pg.137 CCHBII) "What letter is this? Let's print the letter `a'. Is it a tall letter or is it a short letter? `a' is a short letter, so do we start at the top or near the middle?" I say what's in the book, & then when I describe how to write, I make it funny or interesting, but I just follow what's written. In each example they tell you what to say.
       If you're ever going to buy a writing workbook, look for the workbooks that show the children what direction to write in with arrows, like this class does.
       The only time that rule mixes kids up about top to bottom, left to right is in two letters that the children mix up often, & that is your "b" & your "d". Obviously a "b" starts on the left with a stem, top to bottom, back up the same road, bounce off the middle line, a round big belly & back in. Obviously the stem is on the left of the "b", but what about the "d"? The stem is on the right side, so you start with the roundy when writing a "d".
       What's on the left of the "d"? The roundy, the ball, or the stick? The ball's on the left, so draw the ball first. The children get that mixed up if not taught specifically.

Learning to Write Numbers

       Does everybody understand that in teaching writing we follow exactly what it says in this class? Now, one other little tip I want to show you is teaching the writing of numbers. Numbers can be frustrating in English. Besides our straight number one "soldier", there's 2 & 3 & 4 & 5, 6, 7, 8--oh, numbers can really be hard! But there's a real fun poem to learn & it's in CCHBII on pg.228. It's in the Rhyme Book too! It's illustrated & it's really cute! See? And it's the only way I've known to learn to write numbers!
       Look at the number "2", how difficult it is to a little kid who's just learned about balls & sticks. The shape of those numbers are not so "absolute" as writing! But how much better it is to say, "Around & back on the railroad track, that makes a two, two, two!" See?
       "A straight line down & it's done, that's how we make the number 1!" You might like to keep this poem & an ABC poster posted right next to your school table so the kids can always refer to the proper way to write. They know how to write their numbers & their letters because it's right on the wall next to where they write on their paper, they learn by copywork, once you've taught them the original direction in classes.

Other Teaching Tips & Aids

       It's a good idea to put a knob or handle on the big ruler you use to line your big writing board. Or you could use a white board that you only use for teaching Writing that has permanent painted lines.
       You could also xerox the upper & lower case letters from CCHBII on pg.129 & make a wall poster to put up in the schoolroom.
       For my older kids who have already learned Writing on lined paper, I put a small dot to help them find the beginning of each base line.
       Sometimes plastic sheets are difficult for young ones & beginners to write on. Plastic sheets save your Workbooks, but for writing practice it's a little too slippery.
       I remember with my oldest child, I expected too much of him too early & stopped dotting & tracing too soon, so his letters started losing shape. I had to almost go back to the beginning & teach it all over again to get the shape of his letters down. Originally I expected him, after I taught this class, to know all the letters & didn't keep practising with his tracing my writing. It takes a lot of practice before a child can form letters completely on their own. They must first practise with coordination exercises & then with dots & tracing.
       (Question: How do you help children who hold their pencil the wrong way?) Perhaps strive as a goal, that once your whole class has learned to hold their pencils the proper way, they all get a shiner star! Make it a shiner goal. Some people say, "Oh, I can't, I've always done it this way." Say, "Well, when you learn to do it this way, then you'll really progress in your writing." That's something you have to correct now. You have to have everybody hold up their pencil & check their neighbour, & come around & check that they're holding their pencils correctly. Then you'll find out who isn't & they may need to be taken aside to do certain exercises & relearn.
       Writing is a fun thing to reward with stickers, because it's all on paper. Writing is also a good thing to save in a writing notebook, too, & not just say, "Oh, you did such a good job", then crumple it up & throw it away after all that hard work. So it's very good to have a writing notebook for all ages to practice writing in, & save their work & put sticker stars or stamps or even just a red star with your pen.
       Rewarding their good work really helps & encourages them to keep it up! GBY with fun teaching!

A DREAM COME TRUE!--From Faith, Latin America

       Just before I became pregnant with our sixth child, I had a very peculiar dream. In the dream I was at a big Family fellowship that was being held right alongside a busy street & there was a little three or four-year-old girl who was playing near me who seemed to want to be with me. She was very cute, but I didn't want to be responsible for her. Then without warning, she just darted out into the street where cars were passing by & the next thing I knew she was lying lifelessly on the edge of the street. I ran out to where she was lying & a brother picked her up & laid her into my arms. I carried her to this sort of reception desk & inquired as to who her parents were so I could give her to them. The lady at the desk clearly told me their names, but I had never heard of them before & was definitely unfamiliar with them. Then as I looked down at the little girl in my arms, to my surprise she turned into a newborn baby! She smiled real big at me & suddenly I realised that she was mine!
       When I was about two-&-a-half months pregnant, I began to suspect that the baby was no longer alive. The same thing had happened in my previous pregnancy & I lost the baby. When I went to the doctor it was confirmed by an ultra-sound test & the opinion of two different doctors that the baby was dead & I was given the written orders for an abortion. I felt guilty because deep down in my heart I knew that I hadn't really accepted the pregnancy. Being faced with the reality of losing it sobered me up & I asked the Lord to forgive me & help me to be more thankful for what He wanted to give me.
       I had prayer at Communion & asked the Lord to do a miracle if He wanted the baby to live. Four days later, I visited another doctor who had bought several tapes from me a few weeks earlier. When I showed him the abortion order, he immediately gave me another ultra-sound test. While looking at the screen, he exclaimed, "There's been a tremendous error made!" He turned the screen towards me & showed me the baby moving around & its little heart beating rapidly! Praise God! What a miracle!
       But sad to say, as time went on I hard-ened my heart to it again. My tummy kept growing, but I just didn't pay any attention to it, LHM! Then at six months I started to bleed a little. It did scare me somewhat & I took a couple of days of bed rest. But I didn't really get desperate about it until at seven months I began to bleed heavily. I thought for sure that I was going to have the baby & it made me get real desperate. I asked the Lord to forgive me & to hold off labour, & after five days the bleeding stopped! What a miracle!
       For the next two months I needed bed rest & it was during this time that I acquired a real love for the baby. The doctor had told me that the baby was small & underweight, but that if I would eat better & take vitamins, there was time for the baby to recuperate its weight. This really broke my heart for the baby & I prayed that the Lord would make the baby strong & healthy. And He did! Elena was born full term, strong & healthy, weighing over 10 lbs.! TYJ!
       As in the dream, I didn't want the responsibility of the little girl, but when I saw that she was in danger, it shook me up enough to want to go & help her, although I still wanted to turn her over to her parents. When she turned into a baby while in my arms, I was so surprised to see that she was mine, as I had distinctly heard the names of her parents. (Could it be that she came back for another chance?) Elena looks exactly like the baby I saw in my dream & smiles exactly the same way the "dream baby" smiled at me! Receiving this revealing dream & knowing that it was from the Lord helped me to see that it was all His doing & to really trust in Him that He knows what's best for us! Only God knows what special mission each of these little ones has to fulfil! Thank God for our precious children!

Comments from Child-Training Reports!--From Latin American Childcare Reports

What Helpful Comment Would You Have For Other Parents?

       A chalkboard is a real winner as it's the first time that I've ever used one & it really helps for illustrations & visually helps the kids to understand. It actually inspires me to pour out as it's almost like a crystal ball & I just jot down the ideas for them to see which helps them to learn by seeing.--Aaron & Lovelight (Aran & Gentleness Fiddler) USA
       One area that I've noticed is lack of consistency in the children's schooling, especially when they move a lot to different Homes. It would be good for each mother or teacher to have a good notebook for their child & set it up in order of the Childcare Handbook curriculum, along with their memory & Word projects.--Katrina, Lat.Am.
       Apply the "Life With Grandpa" as much as you can in every facet of your daily life. We are also learning the importance of repetition & to just keep going over things & pretty soon it does sink in & you will see changes.--Matthew Freedom, Lat.Am.
       To really love the little ones as they really respond to love more than strict discipline.--Gideon (Job) Teacher, Lat.Am.
       To pour into the children now while there is still time & not look at all they need to learn, but to plod along day by day teaching them what you can. Also to have faith that even when you don't see immediate results, your children's little computers are soaking it all in!--Victoria (Bathsheba) Steward, Lat.Am.
       A regular school schedule & being united in goals & visions as a Home reflects on the children. Their performance depends on our unity & everyone carrying out their different duties, so the teachers can devote their time to teaching & caring for them.--Luke & Comfort, Lat.Am.
       What gave our Home the united vision was reading the Letters of "Davidito", as well as the "How to Love" book (section on communicating with children) together & now even the singles really have a love & burden for the children.--Obed & Amor, Latin America.
       Pray desperately each day for the children & keep trusting the Lord. Claim His promises!--Rosita Verdad, Lat.Am.
       Have patience & do what you can each day. Start with small goals.--Reuben & Hannah Woodsman, Lat.Am.
       Don't give up. Keep in constant prayer & always do your best to be inspiring.--Matthew & Heaven Freedom, Lat.Am.
       Love your children & don't expect perfection. Remember they are little people & not just "the kids".--Jeremiah & Rebecca Bolivar, Lat.Am.
       Don't neglect the Word at any moment & ask the Lord constantly for a good vision for a better work with the children.--Rosita Verdad, Lat.Am.
       It's so important to use all the Family material in our children's training as it's what's going to give them a good foundation.--Steven Piper, Lat.Am.
       Any parent can be a teacher if they are asking the Lord daily for the vision, inspiration & faith to raise & teach their children. Remember also that the vision comes from the Word--the pubs about children, parents etc.--Noe & Cielo Arcoiris, Lat.Am.
       For pregnant moms...In "Heavenly Helpers II", pg.21, "The Secret Life of the Unborn Child" really gives you the vision to give your unborn child lots of love & good influences!--Job & Tekoa, Lat.Am.
       Without a tight schedule a large family can't make it! So it's worth it to press in as a Home & stay on the attack with the kids at all times!--Shaul & Abiah, Lat.Am.
       Remember Matthew 7:12 with the children--ask yourself, "Would I talk to an adult like this?"--as we sometimes do to children.--Gideon (Samuel) & Esther, Lat.Am.
       I think that if every parent would keep themselves well versed in the areas of child training & discipline, maybe setting aside a special time each week to read any recent tips or comments from the latest GN's or FSM's, they would find them-selves so much more in tune with their children & their needs. The sections in the "How to Love" book have helped me so much in my relationship with all the children here.--Jonas & Mary Servant, Lat.Am.
       The lesson we've been learning with the children is the importance of praying every day. When we fail to do it, something bad always happens.--Abner & Mercy (Joaquin & Elizabeth), Lat.Am.
       Try to have better communication with the children & this way you can know why & what their problems are & how to help them overcome them.--Salomon & Belen, Lat.Am.

Testimonies of Our Children!

       When Maria went out witnessing with Dominic, Esteban, Sammy & Elias, a young man came to her with tears in his eyes saying, "These children are real angels--I was feeling pretty discouraged today, but they just light up my day!" Another man said, "I had a lot of doubts, but just now this child (Esteban) gave an answer to each one of them. You have them well trained."--Lily Viento (Betania), Lat.Am.
       I've been really inspired to see the Lord's anointing in the girls when out Postering & restaurant singing. One man told us, "I've never seen or felt such love coming from children!" He asked them to come to his table & sing more of "those marvellous songs of Love." TYJ! When out Postering, people are always calling the children "angels" or "little visitors from Heaven". I can really see them come alive & shine when talking or ministering to the elderly. Sometimes these old people can barely contain tears when the kids hug & kiss them & tell them "Jesus loves you!"--Jonathan & Mary Servant, Lat.Am.

Lessons in Childtraining!

       I've noticed recently with all the moves & changes in personnel in our Home & even changes of teachers, that there has been a break in continuity in the kid's school & a lot of time wasted finding out which kids are at what stage. I think it would really help the kids if we were all more faithful with the curriculum guides & daily logs & to neglect not to communicate.--Praise (Keturah), Lat.Am.

What Lessons in Working with Teens Would You Like to Share with Others?

       One thing we learned is that even though they are capable of doing physical jobs well, you just can't leave them on their own too long as they get distracted easily. One thing I learned this month is that in dealing with them, it really helps them to want to change if they really have the vision for why they need to change!--Pedro & Claire (Samara), Lat.Am.
       Try to think as if we were a teen also & walk a mile in their shoes.--Samuel & Belen, Lat.Am.
       I've learned how important it is to keep them busy & steeped in the Word which seems to keep the problems minimal. Also to have teens write reactions & a log to help them see what they're accomplishing & learning.--Steven Piper, Lat.Am.
       When we separated the children into bedrooms by age--three groups--teens, preteens & younger children--it was much easier to supervise them & train them.--Megiddo & Mara, Lat.Am.
       I've learned that I really need to be more on top of things & not let them get away with so much. Also in teaching them diligence to make them go back until they do it right. Also to pray more desperately for them!--Claire Pastora, Lat.Am.
       One thing that we are realising is that with the different persistent problems that individual teens have in different areas, they really do need specific prayer & laying on of hands for deliverance. "War In the Spirit" really helps us see the spiritual battle we are fighting for these teens.--Reuben & Hannah Woodsman, Lat.Am.
       Be extra careful as they are more sensitive than adults & more easily hurt. Also to give them a lot of encouragement & love. Also to show a lot of appreciation.--Aaron Fiddler (Aran), Lat.Am.


       I have a question about bras: Should teen girls wear them while out witnessing?--Aaron & Lovelight Fiddler, Lat.Am. (Ed. Note: If they really need to due to large breasts. They may not have to if they're smaller & the clothes they're wearing don't cause them to "show".--Depending on the local customs, of course.)

Video Ratings--Videos that Disturb Teens

Dear Family,
       GBY! Some Family teens in Europe were asked to name
videos which had disturbed them, made them fearful or given them bad
dreams. Most had viewed these films between the ages of 7 & 11. They
mentioned that if they had been older they might not have been so
adversely affected.
       Here is the list of the videos that were mentioned
more than once from a group of teens.--Therefore they are not
recommended for under 12! Some are not recommended for teens or
even adults! So please refer to your movie guide & select your children's
videos with prayer! WLY!

       * Dreamscape [EDITED: "A--2 "Not for the squeamish!""]
       * Two Worlds of Jenny Logan [EDITED: "A--1"]
       * Excalibar [EDITED: "A--3!"]
       * Watership Down [EDITED: "Not for children!"]
       * Star Wars [EDITED: "A--3!"]
       * ET [EDITED: "A--2--"Not for children as bad samples outweigh the good!"]
       * Somewhere in Time [EDITED: "A,T--1"]

Will, The Good Little Ant!--A Children's Poem from Prov.6:6-8 -- By Hart

       There once was a cricket who lived in a thicket,
       At the edge of the meadow one Spring;
       And nothing did he like better to do
       Than to play on his fiddle & sing!

       He never gave thought to his work, ah no,
       Loving only to fiddle & play!
       Humming & strumming, all Spring & Summer,
       He fiddled his time all away!

       Now, in the same meadow there lived an ant
       And a good little ant was he;
       His name was William, & he was willing
       And worked as hard as could be!

       As he'd labour, he'd hear that old cricket
       Say, "Join me, Will, in my play!"
       "Sorry, I can't!" said the hard-working ant,
       "There's grain to be storing away!"

       All the long day, while little Will worked,
       The cricket he fiddled & danced;
       Come time to eat, he'd nibble some wheat,
       Or munch on whatever there chanced!

       "Ah, this is such fun!" he'd say as the sun
       Was setting low on the grass;
       "Why store grain away for a cold Winter day,
       When the Summer might not even pass?"

       But alack & alas, the Summer did pass,
       And cold snowy-flakes came a 'tumbling;
       Then all the wee folk of the meadow & oak,
       Closed doors as Winter came rumbling!

       Harvest was past & the Summer was ended,
       And the buggies were all tucked away
       In their wee hollows & burrows with all of
       The grain they'd saved for that day!

       But the lazy old cricket, cold in his thicket,
       Had nothing to eat but a thistle!
       His cellar was empty, his pantry was bare,
       His cupboards were clean as a whistle!

       He moaned, turning blue, "Oh, what shall I do?
       I've only this thistle to munch on!"
       So he broke up his fiddle for fire-wood,
       To cook his last thistle-lunch on!

       "Ah, woe is my lot!--For a briar is not
       Very much to eat for my dinner!"
       My friends, in their dens, have plenty to eat,
       And will have all the long Winter!"

       "Being that I lack it, I'll put on my jacket
       And take a hike down the lane;
       Some good pal of mine might invite me to dine!
       I'm very deserving, 'tis plain!"

       With this thought in mind he set out to find
       The path that he oft used to go;
       But soon he was lost & frozen with frost,
       For the meadow was buried in snow!

       And that was the end of the cricket, my friend,
       Who didn't get fatter, but thinner;
       The last that I heard, some hungry old bird
       Gobbled him down for her dinner!

       But what of dear Will, hid away from the cold,
       Who'd filled his shelves full of wheat?
       Yes, Will wintered well with the wheat in his hold,
       And always had plenty to eat!

       So now the moral!--Yes, here comes the moral
       At which you've surely been guessing!
       Did you get the point of this poem, my friend?
       Or figure out what it's been stressing?

       Yes! We are like Will, the good little ant
       If we store those Scriptures away!
       We work & we shtick, unlike that cricket!
       Whose only desire was to play!

       To fiddle & to play was all that he wanted
       To do till the day he grew old;
       He stored up no grain, & when the snow came,
       He was left out there in the cold!

       So, are you like Will, the good little ant?
       Are you storing the Word in your heart?
       Good for you, if you are! If you're not...uh-oh!
       You'd better get busy & start!

Labour/Delivery/Hospital/Baby Needs List--From Jael & Crystal, SEA
       (Compiled from previous lists pubbed in Mama & Sara Letters. Since these are mainly needs for the tropix, please adapt this list to your situation & choice.)


       Labour Room Needs:

       ( ) ( )       Tape player & tapes & batteries
       ( ) ( ) Posters/pic of Jesus
       ( ) ( ) Verse notebook, Word to claim
       ( ) ( ) Babycare Book (CCHB1)
       ( ) ( ) Pillows
       ( ) ( ) Camera, film, batteries & flash
       ( ) ( ) Snacks for helpers
       ( ) ( ) Photocopy of passport
       ( ) ( ) Chapstick or vaseline for lips
       ( ) ( ) Tissues

       Hospital Room Needs:

       ( ) ( ) Rags for cleaning
       ( ) ( )       Toilet paper--2 rolls
       ( ) ( ) Hand Towel, bath towel, facecloth
       ( ) ( ) 2 dozen disposable panel-type paper diapers/large Kotex
       ( ) ( ) 4 underwear or disposable panties
       ( ) ( ) Bras
       ( ) ( ) Robe
       ( ) ( ) Going-home dress
       ( ) ( ) Slippers
       ( ) ( ) Toiletries: brush or comb, deodorant, small mirror, soap, shampoo, toothbrush, toothpaste, tweezers, nail clippers, cologne, powder, make-up, shower cap or hair clips.
       ( ) ( ) 2 cleaning sponges for toilet, sink
       ( ) ( ) Disinfectant
       ( ) ( ) Breast pads
       ( ) ( ) Breast cream with lanolin
       ( ) ( ) Mosquito stinker & pellets
       ( ) ( ) Flyswatter
       ( ) ( ) Insect spray
       ( ) ( ) Cologne/alcohol for hands
       ( ) ( ) Squeeze bottle for washing bottom area w/clean water
       ( ) ( ) Bedside lamp
       ( ) ( ) Laundry soap
       ( ) ( ) Basic MOP, DMs, Bible, Memo Book
       ( ) ( ) 3-way plug
       ( ) ( ) Hair dryer (optional)
       ( ) ( ) Extra pillows & blankets
       ( ) ( ) Small trash bags
       ( ) ( ) Liquid Soap

       Baby Needs for Hospital:

       ( ) ( ) Receiving blankets
       ( ) ( ) Disposable diapers
       ( ) ( ) 4 shirts/jumpsuits/nighties
       ( ) ( ) Socks
       ( ) ( ) Mittens
       ( ) ( ) Hats
       ( ) ( ) Cornstarch baby powder
       ( ) ( ) Baby lotion
       ( ) ( ) Vaseline
       ( ) ( ) Cotton wool
       ( ) ( ) Q-tips
       ( ) ( ) Baby soap
       ( ) ( ) 70% Alcohol for navel cord
       ( ) ( ) Nose syringe (mucous extractor)
       ( ) ( ) Boiled water in sterile bottle
       ( ) ( ) Mosquito netting to cover crib
       ( ) ( ) Warm sleeper for cooler climates

       Snack Bag:

       ( ) ( ) Honey
       ( ) ( ) Peanut butter
       ( ) ( ) Bread
       ( ) ( ) Crackers
       ( ) ( ) Raisins
       ( ) ( ) Cheese or cheese spread
       ( ) ( ) Yogurt
       ( ) ( ) Wheat germ
       ( ) ( ) Brewer's yeast
       ( ) ( ) Peanut butter balls
       ( ) ( ) Juice
       ( ) ( ) Margarine
       ( ) ( ) Hardboiled eggs
       ( ) ( ) Salt
       ( ) ( ) Carrot sticks/other raw veggies
       ( ) ( ) Fruit (bananas, oranges, apples)
       ( ) ( ) Prepared fruit (pineapple & papaya)
       ( ) ( ) Milk & egg custard
       ( ) ( ) Peanuts
       ( ) ( ) Plastic food bags for garbage
       ( ) ( ) Vitamins
       ( ) ( ) Cups, cutlery, plates, bowls
       ( ) ( ) Pitcher, bleach container
       ( ) ( ) Bleach &/or bottled water (if necessary)
       ( ) ( ) Dish soap
       ( ) ( ) Dish towel

       HAVE AT HOME:

       Changing Supplies for Home:

       ( ) ( ) 2 covered diaper pails
       ( ) ( ) 1 covered trash can
       ( ) ( ) Baby soap
       ( ) ( ) Plastic soap dish
       ( ) ( ) Baby (tearless) shampoo
       ( ) ( ) Baby lotion
       ( ) ( ) Baby cream
       ( ) ( ) Vaseline
       ( ) ( ) Vitamin A & D cream
       ( ) ( ) Alcohol--70%
       ( ) ( ) Q-tips in container
       ( ) ( ) Cotton wool
       ( ) ( ) Cornstarch baby powder
       ( ) ( ) Changing table with safety belt
       ( ) ( ) Changing pad
       ( ) ( ) Baking soda for diaper soaking solution
       ( ) ( ) Disinfectant
       ( ) ( ) Net bag for dirty clothes
       ( ) ( ) 2-3 small plastic containers w/lids

       Baby Needs for Home:

       ( ) ( ) Receiving blankets
       ( ) ( ) Disposable diapers for first week
       ( ) ( ) 4 dozen cloth diapers
       ( ) ( ) 2 sets diaper pins
       ( ) ( ) T-shirts or jumpsuits, long & short sleeve
       ( ) ( ) Plastic pants or tie-ons (optional)
       ( ) ( ) Nightie, long sleeve (drawstring bottom)
       ( ) ( ) Sweater
       ( ) ( ) 4 pairs of socks
       ( ) ( ) Mittens
       ( ) ( ) Bonnets
       ( ) ( ) Bed & mattress
       ( ) ( ) Mosquito net bed cover
       ( ) ( ) 4 sheets
       ( ) ( ) Quilted cotton bedpad
       ( ) ( ) 2 warm blankets
       ( ) ( ) 3 puddle pads
       ( ) ( ) 2 bathtowels
       ( ) ( ) 4 soft face cloths
       ( ) ( ) Baby nail scissors
       ( ) ( ) Nose syringe (mucous extractor)

Copyright 1996 The Family