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FSM 313       DO/TS       
Nutrition in Pregnancy

Compiled by Family Care

Published June 1997

Copyright © 1997 by The Family

       Every Pregnancy Is Special       1
       "The Lord Really Shook Me Up!"       3
       Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition       4
       Eating a Balanced Diet       4
       Calories       5
       Morning Sickness       6
       The Importance of Nutrition       7
       Teen Pregnancy       9
       Your Prenatal Diet       11
       Calcium for Teens       12
       Are you getting Enough Iron?       14
       Iron-Rich Foods       15
       Questions on Pregnancy Diet and Weight Gain       17
       Nutritional Needs in the Last Trimester       18
       Control Your Weight Wisely       20
       Comments on Weight Gain and Updates on CCHB1!       21
       Weight Gain       22
       Milk in the PG Diet       22
       Increasing Your Potential for Normal Birth       23
       Concern for Our Young PG Moms' Diets       29
       Preparing Your Body Before Pregnancy       30
       Prepare Before You Conceive       32

Every Pregnancy Is Special--and Deserves Special Loving Care!
       Being blessed with a new baby to love and nurture in the Lord is wonderful, exciting and fulfilling! Pregnancy is one of the most life-changing experiences in a woman's life. What makes it very special is that it is miraculous how God Himself is working in your body to create a whole new being of His choosing and pleasure! It's no wonder why so many of our mothers rejoice when they are pregnant and are going to have children, as the Lord blesses them through it all in such a special, rewarding way!
       And pregnancy is only the beginning! Besides the nine awe-inspiring months of learning all about the changes your body undergoes, the needs and growth of the developing fetus, and anticipating meeting your newborn for the first time, there's "eating for two," choosing a name, preparing your baby clothes, layette and delivery needs, etc.!
       Before you know it, it is time for the actual birth! You feel your first involuntary contractions, experience the miracle of labor to bring a child into this life, and then you have the deeply satisfying reward of childbirth itself! Your entire life has been changed! You now have a full-time very special little partner, your own precious baby who loves you like you've never been loved, and depends on you for his or her every need and nutrient. In only a few days you are breast-feeding many times daily, which continues for the next year or so, and thus the process goes on. Every day you learn more about your child's life and needs and your new occupation--motherhood! And that beautiful loving little soul continues to depend on you throughout his or her growing years.
       Since more new young mothers are being blessed with this rewarding experience, we were eager to share with you new updates, lessons and tips--vital information that will make a difference in your and your new child's health and well being! Following are articles from young mothers who have learned through trial and error the importance of eating nutritious foods and balanced meals. Especially you first-time and young mothers will find lots of encouraging, helpful counsel on weight gain, morning sickness, exercise, protein priorities, teen pregnancy, as well as updates on related information in Childcare Handbook I. We've also included some tips from Rose, our licensed and experienced Family midwife in the US. Daddies, and all you men in the Homes who help our PG girls, all this information is for you, too! God bless you as you help our dear moms!
       Excerpts from good books on these subjects are also included, but please bear in mind when reading non-Family material that everything should be prayerfully balanced with the Word, prayer, and counsel, to determine what is best and most applicable to your local situation. For example, if cottage cheese is not available or is too expensive in your country, then research what other foods provide good sources of protein and calcium, such as tofu for protein and calcium, dark greens for calcium, etc. Research what quality foods in your area provide the same nutritional value as the ones mentioned in these articles. (See also "Story of Our Children" GN Book 19, pg.412, 434; "God's Gift is God's Work, Parts 1-3" Vol.6 pg.5780; Mop 2, pg.786, and the new "Educational Book Guide," which lists good reference books on pregnancy, nutrition and childbirth.)
       It helps to understand when reading any System material on pregnancy and childbirth that they are addressed to System women with poor eating habits and other vices such as smoking and drinking. These women usually depend solely on the medical profession and rely on drugs and all kinds of prenatal tests, etc.; therefore much of this System counsel does not apply to us. However, even though we are so blessed with a Godly heritage of health, prayer and the wonderful pubs and counsel we have on pregnancy and nutrition, it has been reported that many times both our new and experienced pregnant mothers are not doing all they can to take proper care of their bodies and their growing babies. Just "being in the Family" does not mean that each Home member is eating a good, nutritious diet. And although our Family diets are not comprised of an overabundance of nutritionally depleted junk foods of the System, nine months of excellent food during pregnancy cannot completely make up for faulty nutrition before pregnancy.
       Our Homes need to follow a wholesome, nutritious diet for the sake of every member, and especially for our expectant mothers, babies, and growing children. With the increasing number of new babies being born into the Kingdom, it is our hope that this information will help to inspire each Home and parent to do their best in "being our mothers' keepers" and supporting each PG woman with lots of loving care and provision of her needs. When the Lord has blessed us with such a wonderful special gift of His love in a new baby, we believe the mother and baby both deserve extra special love and care! May He continue to bless all you precious mothers of all ages with healthy, happy pregnancies and babies!


       The counsel and information contained in this FSM is helpful and needed for both mothers and fathers, as well as those helping and caring for our dear PG moms -- God bless you!
       Nutritional and medical related topics are tough subjects to cover, since there is so much information available, and so varied, and even seemingly opposite viewpoints and opinions from different system "experts." Because of this, we want to stress the importance of bringing all these things before the Lord in prayer and seeking His counsel and or confirmations on what He knows will be good for you personally.
       If you need further counsel or advice from a doctor on specific health or pregnancy problems, or when going for regular prenatal checkups, it's important to seek the Lord that He will lead you to a good doctor who will give godly counsel. It's best that you try to find a Christian doctor who loves the Lord and has faith in Him. The Adventists usually are helpful and more godly, and Catholic hospitals or clinics are also generally better than their secular counterparts. Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that the doctors and other people working in any hospital or clinic are in tune with the Lord unless they are praying and seeking His direction. A good doctor might still give incorrect counsel, so it is imperative that you seek the Lord's confirmations each step of the way. It is also wise to get more than one medical opinion if practical and affordable.
       Most of all, be sure to ask the Lord when it comes to medical matters, and be prayed up and on guard. When consulting a doctor, if possible go with a full-of-faith Family member who can be a real help and support to you as a prayer warrior and counselor. Doctors can be intimidating and very pushy with their opinions, so it takes faith and being prayed up to stand up for your convictions and the godly counsel in the Word.
       Also, while system books can be a helpful source of medical and nutritional information, and some of the counsel in this FSM is taken from such books, beware of depending too much on what the books say instead of depending on the Lord and His Word. Don't be overly swayed by what one book may say and take it as the "gospel-truth," as even the "experts" disagree on many health-related matters. Just as the doctors say that you should "consult your doctor" before beginning any exercise or nutritional program to make sure it's okay for you personally, likewise we should consult our Doctor [EDITED: "the Lord!"], to make sure that any steps we're taking along these lines will be good for us. God bless and keep you healthy in Him! Happy pregnancies!


"The Lord Really Shook Me Up!"
--Lessons on the Need for Nutrition in Pregnancy
By Christina (SGA), Japan
       God bless you! I love you and want to share some important lessons I had to learn on nutrition.
       The first time I got pregnant it really affected my eating. I had not built up good eating habits through the years as I was energetic and healthy, so I just took my health for granted. Then being pregnant, my eating habits got worse, and it took quite a toll on me physically, especially after the baby was born. The Lord shook me up to the seriousness of taking good care of my body.
       From what I understand, it seems that many of our YA girls and new mommies are having the same battles as I have had, or are not taking nutrition seriously, brushing off people's advice, especially concerning preparing to have a baby. Maybe if I share some of the difficulties I had while pregnant, it will help them, and even others in the Home, to better understand the need to keep a high standard in the area of nutrition, especially before and during pregnancy.
       I had morning sickness daily from two months to about six months into my pregnancy, and then even after that, certain combinations of food would make me feel nauseous. I had a basic lack of appetite, was very sensitive to greasy, highly seasoned and spicy foods, and couldn't keep down meat of almost any kind, especially chicken. ({\b \i Editor's note:} Different foods cause nausea for different pregnancies. Chicken might cause nausea for one, whereas another girl will do well with chicken, but beef will cause her nausea, while others may have no problem with meat at all.) Also, since our Home was busy with many ministries going on, a lot of demonstrations, witnessing, Meaningful Meetings with the teens we'd witness to, the Christmas push, I didn't have the faith to ask for someone to prepare food for me. ({\b \i Editor's note:} Poor girl! It's common that our sick mommies don't want to ask others to help them with their foods, but there can be dire consequences! For both mother and baby's health and well-being, the most effective help is if someone can be responsible to prepare for her the nutritious foods she needs, especially when she is nauseous and not able to help herself or even go near the kitchen because of the smell.) I didn't want to be a "special case," so I tried to keep up with the normal happenings. Since the smell of food really affected me, I skipped a lot of meals. I ate hardly any vegetables, no meat, and didn't take any health foods, like brewer's yeast or molasses. Thank the Lord, He gave me a desire for milk and eggs, which I basically survived on for protein.
       After Janina was born, my digestive system returned to normal and I could handle meat and veggies again. However, I didn't quite realize how much my body was working, with nursing, returning to normal, the bleeding after delivery, healing stitches, and getting adjusted to waking up a few times a night. So I just ate whatever was served, rather than eating more and better, as I should have been. I immediately lost a lot of weight, going from 59 kilos to 49 in one week. About five days after she was born I got a fever for three days, which wiped me out, but I was still basically eating only regular meals, rather than a postnatal diet. Then a few days later I again got a fever, and on my way to the toilet I fainted twice. This really shook me up, as I'd never fainted in my life!
       Well, thank the Lord, someone in my Home got a strong check it was due to my diet, and that I was probably anemic (low in iron) and so needed a diet high in iron and protein. She spent the day preparing different foods for me--a pep-up drink with brewer's yeast, whole grain bread, health bars, liver, spinach, and all those yummy things--ha! Well, the result of eating those super high quality foods was the Lord raised me up very quickly and I have been gaining strength rapidly, plus I have had more than enough milk for my baby. Another thing that shook me up was to learn that while nursing, my body takes the nutrition first from the food, and then what's left goes to the baby. I felt so sorry for poor Janina, who was getting only the leftovers of my poor diet!
       So, dear new mommies, please take good care of yourselves during and after pregnancy, and mommies-to-be, please take care of yourselves before pregnancy. I learned from my experiences, that for my own health's sake and especially for the sake of the baby, I shouldn't be too proud to ask others for help to cook and prepare my food. One thing that would've helped me is if I had asked for help in pre-preparing food to keep frozen and on hand, so all I'd have had to do was put it in the microwave or warm it on the stove and it would've been ready to eat. ({\b \i Editor's note}: That is a helpful idea. However, when you can, it's even better to eat the food fresh as it looses some of its nutritional value when freezing and heating it.) Also, I should have had good healthy snacks on hand so that I wouldn't resort to toast in emergencies (which frequently happened!) ({\b \i Editor's note:} See "I Got by with a Lot of Help from My Friends" by Sara D., in "The Story of our Children," GN Book 19, pg.434.)
       If the Lord has given you a new life to care for, He expects you to do all you can to give it the best you can. Faith is another important factor-- faith to rest even when busy, to eat well, and to ask for help, and even faith to buy food if it isn't coming in through provisioning! "Where God guides, He provides!" God bless you with healthy babies and strong bodies!
       Love, Christina

       PS. Since writing this article and eating a more healthful diet, I went to the midwife for a checkup. I had expected that I would've gained at least two to three kilos since I was eating three very good meals a day and two nutritious snacks, but to my surprise I had continued to lose weight. When praying about it, a few of us got a check that it was because I wasn't eating enough carbohydrates daily. I was eating so much protein that I didn't have any room left for starch, and I learned that my body was using the protein in place of the carbohydrates for energy. Carbohydrates are very important for your body, as they are burned to make energy, which you really need.
       If you want to avoid getting fat, you need to avoid too much fats, such as butter, margarine, oil, greasy foods, and too many sweets. However, healthful carbohydrates like potatoes, whole grain rice, bread and cereals are very important to include in your meals! So don't neglect those! Here are some very convicting quotes on nutrition:
       "People need to realize that eating the wrong things is abusing their body just as much as anything else! They've gotten the idea that only things like smoking, drinking, drugs and that sort of thing is abusing their body, but there are plenty of Christians who abuse their body just as much, if not worse, by what they eat! Look at it this way: Eating the right food and getting enough exercise and getting enough rest is serving God! It's part of your work for the Lord! It's God's work to let God work in you"--(DB10, pg.97:27,30).
       "Most of the time Dad is really cheerful and praiseful! Actually, he amazes me how cheerful he is through all of these different afflictions! He's such a fighter! He'll have times when his food just refuses to go down and he'll just try over and over and over again to eat and force it down.--Sometimes for hours. But he never gives up!"--(DB10, pg.255:20).
       "Starches and sweets (carbohydrates) and fats are energy foods that your body has to burn for energy. You're making a mistake cutting out all energy foods such as carbohydrates (that's sweets and starches), and all fats, because your body has to have those things for energy. Your body cannot burn proteins very well! It's like burning down the house to keep warm! If you don't have any intake of energy foods, it's like having a nice lamp and no oil! A nice furnace and no fuel! No matter how much protein, minerals and vitamins and all that sort of thing you eat, it's not enough! Proteins are the building blocks of the body or the furnace. But the furnace is no good without any fuel!" ({\b \i Editor's note:} Please see more of this helpful talk from Dad in CCHB3, pg.654. See also the article entitled "Nutrition," CCHB 3, pgs.638-652, another good class for expectant parents to read.)


Pre-Pregnancy Nutrition
       It is a well-documented fact that a mother's pre-pregnant nutritional state has a great influence on the growth and development of the baby. Additionally, the mother's nutritional state and eating habits during pregnancy will also have a dramatic effect on the child. After all, the only nutrition the baby receives is through the mother, and we all know that output is a function of input. If you don't feed yourself properly, the fetus will start to feed from your food stores and reserves. This will weaken you, and then both you and your baby may suffer from nutritional deficiencies. (From Vitamins and Minerals For a Healthy Pregnancy [EDITED: "and a Healthy Baby!"], by Richard F. Gerson, Ph.D. Published by        Contemporary Books, 1987.)

Eating a Balanced Diet
       Bear in mind that you are providing nutrition for three distinct but interdependent biological entities: your own body, the developing baby, and the placenta. This triple nutritional task demands a good, high-protein diet rich in vitamins and minerals. (From The Complete Book of Pregnancy and Childbirth--New edition fully revised and expanded , by Sheila Kitzenger, Alfred A. Knopher, New York, 1994.)

       Not getting enough calories in pregnancy has more serious consequences than getting too many. If you were snowed in at a ski lodge and ran out of wood for the fireplace, you would probably start burning everything in sight for fuel. Your body does much the same thing when it has insufficient fuel for baby making: It burns body fat and body protein. It will also burn the protein you eat, instead of allowing it to be used to build your baby's body. So, to protect yourself and your baby, be sure to get an adequate number of calories daily. (From What to Eat When You're Expecting , by Arlene Eisenburg, Heidi Eisenburg Murkoff, and Sandee Eisenburg Hathaway, R.N., Workman Publishing, New York.)

       (Nausea and vomiting) do not threaten the life of the mother and baby. Approximately 70 percent of pregnant women experience some form of sickness, ranging from mild nausea in the morning to all-day nausea and frequent vomiting.
       Important factors seem to be a woman's diet, both before, and in the early weeks of pregnancy, and her way of life. A well-balanced diet, high in unrefined carbohydrates, such as whole wheat bread and pasta, whole grain cereals, potatoes and fresh fruit, is not only good for the developing fetus, but helps reduce morning sickness.
       Fortunately, there is no evidence that a temporarily reduced or unbalanced diet will affect the fetus, provided you were in good health and well-nourished before you became pregnant. Your body reserves will be sufficient until the sickness and nausea pass, and you will then be able to resume a healthy eating pattern. (From The Complete Handbook of Pregnancy--A step-by-step guide from preconception to the first weeks following birth, by George B. Feldman, M.D., with Anne Feldman.)

       Nausea is a problem for as many as 3 out of 4 pregnant women. Acid foods augment acid in the stomach. Separate solids from liquids, take them one hour apart and the nausea goes away. (From As Your Baby Grows From Conception to Birth magazine by American Baby's, Volume 4, Number 3, a Cahner's Publication.)

Cheer up! Morning Sickness Is Good for You!
       Morning sickness has always been seen as an unfortunate side-effect of pregnancy, something you had to suffer as quietly as possible. But there is increasing evidence that it could actually serve a valuable purpose: it may stop us from eating foods that are bad for a developing baby.
       During the first trimester, the first 12 to 14 weeks when the baby's organs are developing, it is especially important that toxins don't enter the body, and if they do, they don't stay there for very long. According to Ms Margie Profet (a prize-winning American biologist), during this delicate early stage "pregnancy sickness protects the embryo from naturally occurring plant and bacterial toxins in the mother's diet that can cause birth defects or miscarriage. It does this by causing the mother to become repulsed by smells and tastes that indicate toxicity."
       Roger Marwood, consultant obstetrician and gynecologist at London's Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, views morning sickness as a basically healthy response. "It shows your hormone levels are high, and you're unlikely to miscarry," he says, reassuringly.

What you can do
       Don't worry. Morning sickness means that you tend to eat less of the things that make you feel queasy, and more of the things that make you feel good.
       Trust your food and smell aversions. There's usually a good reason for them. Coffee, which many women go off, in its roasted form contains more than 1,000 toxins!
       Many books recommend mild herbal teas, such as chamomile, but as Ms Profet points out, herbs contain toxins. Drink even mild herbal teas in moderation.
       Ginger, in the form of biscuits or ale, can help. (From Your Complete Guide to Pregnancy and Birth magazine, published by Elap Elan, London, May, 1996.)

       ({\b \i Editor's note:} Drinking lemon or lime juice, sweetened to taste, or even preferably with no sweetener, either cold or hot, can be very helpful in settling a queasy tummy. Sip throughout the day and about half hour before a meal to help you eat.)


The Importance of Nutrition and Protein Foods for PGs
Notes from Rose, Family midwife, North America
       ({\b \i Editor's note}: Rose has been delivering babies as a midwife since June 1982 and has been assisting at Family births since February 1985. She has delivered about 700 babies to date, with about 150 of those being Family babies. The first 550 births she did at a school where she was a student while in the Family, and where she then became an instructor and director. She has been delivering babies as a full-time ministry in the Family since October of 1990; the previous five years she did the births part-time, about three to five a year. She now does about 20 a year and travels about 35,000 miles in the US to assist especially our first-time young mothers in home deliveries. Please keep Rose and her team in your prayers!)

       It's believed that good nutrition solves about 95% of life-endangering complications and physical birth defects.
       I would say that proper nutrition is the greatest need in our YA mothers' pregnancies and in preparing for giving birth. The main thing I stress in teaching new mothers about pregnancy and childbirth is better eating habits and more protein foods, both of which are essential to the health and welfare of both the baby and mother.
       I've been asked if the Homes need to get special food for pregnant moms or can the PGs just eat what's served to the Home. I have found that usually they can't merely eat what's served for meals in the Home. It's simply not sufficient.
       PGs especially need to work at getting the protein foods they need daily. CCHB1 says PGs need 75 grams of protein daily, but I was trained in nutrition courses that doctors have since learned that 100 grams is needed for pregnant moms. Also, what's very important to know is 125 grams of protein should be eaten daily for mothers under 21.
       I have seen that often our teen and YA moms aren't eating enough protein for their developing babies to grow. The demands for protein are greater at the end of pregnancy. The last month is when the baby's brain cells are developing, plus the baby gains ½ to 1 pound a week in your last month of pregnancy, so that is when it is especially important the mother gets a diet high in protein and calcium. Pregnant teens and YAs need protein for their own bodies to grow, as well as for their new baby. Both the young mother and the baby are growing, and you are feeding your unborn baby all the food he gets. A young mother is still growing till the age of 21, and even though she may have reached her full height years ago, her inner organs are still growing till she is 21. Doctors require young PGs to eat more healthful foods than usual and to have good, balanced diets.
       During your pregnancy, the nutrition from the food you, the mother, eat, first goes to the baby in the womb, and your body gets the leftover nutrients. However, once the baby is born, it's the opposite. The mother's body takes first and the nursing baby gets the leftovers. While the growing baby inside takes what it needs to grow, if the mother's diet is not highly nutritious, the mother's body will eventually suffer and it will show because there are not enough "leftovers" for her. Your first baby will likely be healthy because he pulls from your body. However, you will be tired and weak for six months to a year after the birth if you don't eat well now in pregnancy. ({\b \i Editor's note}: It will affect your subsequent pregnancies as well!) It really pays to eat well now. In fact, you might as well get in the good habit of eating well now and for the next two years, due to pregnancy and nursing. Dad and Mama have said it is best that mothers eat well all their childbearing years. (See "A Child for His Glory!", by Maria, CCHB1, pgs.11-12.)

Protein Additions to your Daily Diet
       A lot of moms can't seem to eat full meals their last month due to having less tummy space, which means they can't eat very much. Some lose their appetite for meat. I counsel them to eat small frequent meals, and if they can't eat everything, at least get the protein and meat. It would be better to cut back on the starch first, then even if they have to, cut back on fruit and vegetables some the last month, in order to eat the protein daily, because it is so important.
       If the PG moms get protein-based snacks between good balanced meals, they'll do fine--snacks like nutritious peanut butter balls with a glass of milk, or yogurt with wheat germ, or cottage cheese with fruit. It's great if wheat germ or brewer's yeast is eaten daily, as they both are complete proteins and each contain all the 12 B-vitamins. You get balanced B-vitamins in wheat germ, brewer's yeast, liver and in whole uncooked wheat.
       The protein foods do not have to all be meat. If a PG is faithful to just add eggs, tuna, peanut butter, and yogurt or cottage cheese to their balanced meals or as snacks, plus drink their milk, they should do fine at getting the protein they need daily.
       It helps to learn the number of grams of protein that protein foods contain so you can calculate your protein intake for the day. Pregnant moms need 25 grams of protein at each of the three main meals. They can then get the remaining 25-50 grams of needed protein in milk and yogurt, etc. Milk is a great source of protein, about 1 protein gram per ounce, so a liter of milk is about 32 grams of protein. So eating good proteins at meals, plus drinking a liter of milk daily, and eating protein snacks would give PGs the 100 grams (125 grams for mothers under 21) of protein that you and your developing baby need.
       To understand the amounts in normal servings, one serving of meat, fish or poultry is usually 4 ounces (113 grams), which is the serving that Dad recommended for meals in our Homes, so 1 pound of meat is 4 servings and 1 kilo is 10 servings. One serving of fruit, veggie or starch is one piece or ½ cup.
       People usually consider cheese a good source of protein, but unless it is very good quality, cheese is low in protein and can't be depended on as a major source. Plus, the more nutritious, better quality cheeses are quite expensive, and unless provisioned, our Homes often get the cheaper, less nutritious types of cheese. So unless you can obtain these high quality cheeses, you should only add cheese to your meals as a supplement, but not as a sole source of protein.

Complete proteins by grams:
       (Please keep in mind that such information can vary in different health books, so the following are only approximations.)
       4-ounce serving of meat, fish or fowl = 25 grams
       8-ounce glass (1 cup or approximately 250 mls) of milk = 8 grams
       1 quart (almost 1 liter) whole milk = 32 grams
       2 cups or 500 ml of whole, 2% or skim milk = 16 grams
       ½ cup non-instant skim milk powder = 35 grams
       8 ounce (1 cup) of yogurt = 8-12 grams
       2 cups or 500 ml yogurt = 16 grams
       6½ ounce can of tuna = 40 grams
       ½ cup of cottage cheese = 20 grams
       1 egg = 6 grams (a large egg = 8 grams)
       -- cup cooked soybeans = 15 grams (1 cup = 22 grams) [EDITED: "tofu is also a complete protein"]
       1½ cup of wheat germ, raw or toasted = 13 grams
       ¼ cup or 40 grams brewer's yeast = 20 grams (1 tbsp = 6 grams)
       2 slices of cheese = 3-4 grams (a few of the better natural cheeses, like Cheddar, Swiss, or Edam are higher, with 2 slices having 8-12 grams; 2 ounces having about 20 grams)

Incomplete proteins by grams:
       2 tablespoons of peanut butter = 9 grams
       ½ cup of peanuts = 8 grams (½ cup Brazil nuts = 12 grams)
       1 slice whole wheat bread = 1-3 grams
       1 cup of navy or lima beans = 6-8 grams
       -- cup cooked cereal (oatmeal, ground wheat, etc.) = 2-5 grams
       When I check on a pregnant teen or YA mom, the first thing I will ask her is: "Tell me everything you ate yesterday." She may answer: "For breakfast, bread, cheese, peanut butter. For lunch, eggs with ham and sausage in them, potatoes, and at night, fruit. I had a couple of cups of milk during the day." I will show her that's only about 50 grams of protein, and that means that she is not doing well on her eating. That kind of diet is poor on protein and veggies, and she is not getting three good balanced meals a day. You'll find that often our Homes have health food supplements for PGs, so the girls just need to be encouraged to eat them.

A Simple Meal Plan with 25 grams of protein per meal:
       ({\b \i Editor's note}: This is just a sample plan, and you may need to adapt it to locally available foods with similar nutritional value.)
       Breakfast--2 eggs, 1 toast, 8 ounces of milk (or ½ cup cottage cheese).
       (If you don't count your milk as part of the 25 grams, you would need to add a little cheese or meat to the eggs, or eat 3 eggs.)
       Lunch--Hamburger patty with cheese, on wheat bread with fresh lettuce and tomato, with cooked or raw veggie, fruit. ({\b \i Editor's note}{\i : Fish, liver pâté, turkey and tofu are also nourishing substitutes.)}
       Snacks--Peanut butter balls with wheat germ or powdered milk added, and an 8-ounce glass of milk. You need about 6 tablespoons of peanut butter to make up to 27 grams of protein. Try leftover meats from meals for protein snacks. ({\b \i Editor's note}{\i : Or make pâté, egg custard, etc.)}
       Dinner--Whatever meat the Home is having, or tuna ({\b \i Editor's note}: Or fresh fish--might be safer and better than canned tuna in some countries); salad with veggies; some carbohydrate like potatoes, or whole wheat pasta or toast; fruit.

Results of Not Eating Well
       Because the way you eat plays such a big part in the health and well being of you and your baby, there are certain problems that can be avoided by eating well. By the same token, certain complications can almost be expected if you don't eat well. An examination of the placenta tells how well or how poorly the mother ate in the first months of pregnancy more than anything else. After a delivery, I check the placenta and show the new mother, if she is interested, how the condition of her placenta shows how well she did in her early months of eating.
       Good nutrition in the early months even determines where the cord is attached to the placenta. Indications show that there was poor nutrition in the early months, or it was not what it should have been, if:
       1. the umbilical cord is attached to the side or off center of the placenta.
       2. the cord is ripped or detached from the waterbag.
       3. the coloring is "off" in places, or overall. The placenta should look like a whole red, fresh piece of liver.
       In two of the three girls I delivered in the last month, the placentas showed that the young mothers, one 16 and the other 17, ate rather poorly in their early months or weeks of pregnancy. Of course, they didn't realize that they were pregnant for the first weeks. Some girls don't keep track of their monthly periods, so by the time they discover they are pregnant, it's pretty late to be doing something for the growing baby in the early stages of pregnancy by that time! They may have been dieting also, which is extra dangerous for the fetus. ({\b \i Editor's note:} It is important for any of our women of childbearing age to care for their bodies through good nutrition and care, in the event they conceive and nurture a new growing baby. Just as a farmer prepares and nourishes the soil before and after he plants the seeds that grow into a healthy crop, which is his livelihood, so will a mother reap what she sows in feeding, caring for and nourishing her body to produce a whole new life, a precious soul for the Kingdom!)
       In one country there was a problem because the pregnant girls thought they shouldn't eat meat, that it wasn't good for the baby, so they lacked the protein they needed in pregnancy. Some of the teens believed this and did not eat well when they later became pregnant, and as a result had poor births and health because of poor nutrition. It is good to know what nationals of different countries were brought up believing in these areas so misinformation can be corrected.
       The Word is our guide. Family mothers should abide by the very good advice in our pubs on the subject of nutrition and pregnancy, rather than go by hearsay.
        ({\b \i Editor's note:} Many Family members have requested updated information on nutrition, especially since there is so much in the media about high cholesterol and fat content in some foods which risk heart disease, etc. The current standard of healthy eating is to follow a low-fat, low-sugar, hi-fiber, moderate-protein diet. What's considered the optimum diet is high in fresh vegetables, whole grains, fruit, and especially for both youth and the middle-aged, foods high in calcium.
       (There are many cautions put forth about keeping to a low-fat diet with less meat intake than was considered healthy before. Protein is a major nutrient and important food group-- {\ul \i especially} for pregnant women and children!--But some protein foods are often also high in fat and thus contain concentrated sources of extra calories. If this is a concern of yours, poultry and fish are lower in fat content than beef, lamb or pork. Plain, fresh or frozen, meats are preferable because they are lower in additives, fats and preservatives than processed meats, such as hams and most canned meats, etc.
       (However, please remember that your body needs some carbohydrates--or fat--in order to effectively absorb the proteins you eat. So the view that "if low-fat is good, no-fat is better," is wrong. A moderate amount of carbohydrates is good and necessary, just avoid heavy, fatty, greasy and extra sweet foods.
       (Nutrition sources also promote eating less sugar, and more fiber and natural fresh foods. These precautions are likely due to the high increase in additives, chemicals, fats, sugars and preservatives in today's processed foods. They are intended to decrease the risk of resultant heart disease and cancer, especially when people get so little exercise! Because the content and quality of today's foods have changed over the past decades due to methods of growing, storing and packaging food, so has the nutritional standard of eating. Thank the Lord for our Family training and standard of eating healthy, natural, nutritious foods as much as possible, which relates to this more natural way of eating that the System is now promoting more and more. Dad said the principles of good health are: "Eat right, exercise right, sleep right and live right!")
       An anemic mom is more prone to hemorrhage. Our moms usually don't hemorrhage because they usually eat well. That has only happened in one birth I have attended.
       Poor nutrition may play an important role in toxemia, or preeclampsia (a condition of hypertension occurring in pregnancy). If you have symptoms of toxemia, usually in the last trimester (a rise in blood pressure along with an increase in fluid retention), increase the protein in your diet. (See CCHB1, pgs. 43, 203.) If mild preeclampsia goes untreated, eventually protein appears in the urine (a sign that the mother is not eating well), and the baby could be born prematurely or be stillborn.
       It is a mistake to be on a no-salt diet, especially with toxemia. The placenta needs it. A normal amount of salt is necessary for a normal pregnancy, and is fine for PGs, as many books now explain.
       In the case of one Family girl who was a picky eater all her life and worse when pregnant, the result was she was weak and sickly for many months after the birth of her first child, even though she had a very normal and good birth. Then in her second pregnancy she had the same type of problems with being sick and even came close to miscarrying the baby. Thank the Lord, young mothers don't normally have many problems with the first baby due to their body's reserves. However, if they don't keep up a good nutritional standard they may have problems with subsequent babies.
       Sometimes there is one child in a family who is always on the sickly side. Often when you talk with the mother you'll find that that's the one pregnancy when she didn't eat so well and was not taking care of herself or her growing baby. This means we could be in for more health problems with our mothers and children unless we can teach the Family now about adhering to a more healthy daily diet for everyone.

Nutrition and Foods for Nursing
       Did you know that just because you are breast feeding doesn't mean your baby is getting the best nutrition? That depends on you and your diet! Remember, the nursing baby gets the leftovers of what nutrients the mother's body has not taken first. After the first several days, newborns should be gaining weight (see "Newborn Weight Gain," CCHB1, pg.299). I have seen some newborns who were not gaining due to the mother's poor quality and quantity of breast milk.
       If you can eat a gassy food like beans regularly when pregnant, then you can usually eat it when nursing without your baby having problems with gas. Broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage are quite gassy for the nursing baby unless the mother ate them regularly, like several times a week, when pregnant. An example of this is how expectant Mexican mothers eat beans, rice and jalapenos daily, so they can then eat them when nursing without problems. Also mothers in India eat spicy foods daily while pregnant and then can eat them when nursing with no problems with gas for her or the baby.
       Along with prayer, plenty of rest, improved diet and lots of liquids, it has been professed that drinking dark beer can enrich breast milk. For some reason the tuna, together with the yeast and calories in dark beer, improves the milk supply in some cases. So for an underweight baby, you could try adding tuna and dark beer to your diet for a short while to see if it helps. It can make a difference in the amount of milk the mother produces within two to three days, and some mothers need it for two weeks. In Mexico they say eating oatmeal and drinking dark beer daily enriches your milk.
       ({\b \i Editor's note:} An SGA mom testifies, "With my first three children I had problems {\ul \i each time} with not having sufficient milk, and had to go on various pep-up diets . Someone told me about the tuna-beer diet while I was pregnant with my fourth baby, so I tried it when he was born. I had a five-day diet of a can of beer and a can of tuna [EDITED: "along with my regular meals and snacks"] each day from the first day he was born [EDITED: "packed the 5 cans of tuna and beer right in my "hospital bag"!"], and by the fifth day, my milk was completely established good and strong, and I never had any problems with it. Also, this fourth child was my only baby who stayed chubby, all the others were on the thin side. I'm not saying five cans of beer and tuna is what made him chubby, but it sure did seem to help my milk get established well." We all know there is a limit to beer consumption in the Charter, yet for this "special, infrequent occasion that may warrant an exception," if it seems helpful and needful to enrich a mother's milk, she may want to pray about trying it out for a few days as an initial boost.)


TEEN PREGNANCY (Book Excerpts)
       At this time, you need more protein, minerals, vitamins and calories. When pregnancy and growth happen at the same time, they compete for these important nutrients. Almost one third of a girl's full growth, one half her weight and 10 to 15% of her height, is going on during adolescence. The growth means there is a need for a steady supply of nutrients, substances found in food that promote growth and development and provide energy for the body. (From Teen Guide to Caring for Your Unborn Baby, by Fern G. Brown, A Franklin Watts Library Edition.)

       Pregnant teenagers have special nutritional needs. In general, the teens are years of great growth and development. A young girl's body uses all its energy and available nutrients to build bones and additional muscle mass and to produce more hormones. At the same time, the teen's body looses nutrients monthly with menstruation. Her body works hard to make these adjustments following puberty. The average age of puberty is 10-½ to 13 years. It requires about four years after the onset of puberty to begin rebuilding body stores of calcium, zinc and fat-soluble vitamins. If pregnancy occurs during this time, stores are not replenished. The demand for additional nutrients comes at a difficult time. Research has shown that this is a time when girls frequently diet, skip meals, and don't consume enough calcium, iron, vitamin A and calories to meet daily needs. A pregnant teen needs at least 600 more calories than found in the basic nutritional plan. (From Pregnant and Beautiful--How to Eat Right, Stay Fit and Look Great, by Lindsay R. Curtis, MD, Cynthia Hazeltine, RD, Judith Rasband, MS, HP Books.)

       When teenagers receive proper prenatal care, they have no more complications than do any other pregnant women. (Source unknown.)

       In July 1970, the National research Council sent out a news release concerning the danger of all weight restriction during pregnancy, especially for the adolescent expectant mother. Because they are themselves still growing, their nutritional requirements are tremendously high. (From Let's Have Healthy Children, by Adelle Davis, a Signet Book, New American Library, 1972.)

       Women Requiring Extra Nutritional Care: There are certain circumstances that make some women more nutritionally vulnerable than others ... This suggests that your body could use some extra nutritional care throughout your prenatal period. Women who are in this category include those who: have had a recent miscarriage or stillbirth; are allergic to any of the key essential foods; have a chronic condition that requires regular medication; smoke or drink heavily; have children spaced closely together; began their pregnancy in a tired or run-down state; are under a great deal of stress; have had a multiple pregnancy; are pregnant during adolescence; or were overweight or underweight at the beginning of pregnancy. (From Mother and Child--The Time Before Birth, by Maralie Martin and Karen West, Random House, 1988.)

Your Prenatal Diet: Protein Is Important!
       Protein is important to the growth of all body tissue. It plays a critical role in the growth of your baby's brain cells, bones, teeth, muscles, cell walls and blood tissue. Protein assists the pregnant woman by building and repairing body tissues and helping to supply energy. It also builds antibodies and is used by the body in the formation of hormones. During pregnancy, you may need to increase your protein intake by [EDITED: "at least"] 50 percent, because of your baby's fast growth rate and tissue development.
       Proteins are made up of amino acids. The body manufactures all but eight of the 22 known amino acids. Those eight are called the "essential amino acids" and have to be supplied through foods you eat. They need to be eaten simultaneously and in proper proportion in order to be effective. Protein foods have been divided into two categories: "complete proteins," which contain all of the essential amino acids, and "incomplete proteins," which have either too few or none of the essential amino acids. If you combine a complete protein with an incomplete protein, you are adding to your essential amino acid supply. However, it's not necessarily true that by combining two incomplete proteins you make up one complete protein. It depends on the food combinations. To be sure of getting enough essential amino acids, it's best to choose foods from the complete protein list.
       Sources of incomplete proteins include rice, pasta, lentils, kidney beans, chick peas, peas, peanut butter, nuts, seeds and grains. The following combinations work together to form complete proteins: seeds with legumes or nuts; grains with legumes or nuts; grains with milk products; bean soups with milk; whole grain breads with sesame or other seed spreads, beans with brown rice; cheese with brown rice; whole grain macaroni with cheese. (From Mother and Child: The Time Before Birth , by Maralie Martin and Karon West, Random House, 1988.)

Calcium for teens from an AP news article

       (AP) Your 15-year-old daughter seems to have completed her growth spurt. Does she still need extra calcium and nutrients?
       As a rule, yes. Young people need more nutrients in the wake of the growth spurt that they experience during adolescence.
       Intake of calcium is essential for healthy bones--even after youngsters have completed their period of accelerated bone growth. Calcium continues to be deposited into bones for another 10 years.
       For parents, the hard part may be getting their children to eat enough of the foods that supply calcium.
       Recent studies have shown that most teenagers do not eat enough of the food groups that supply calcium, iron and beta carotene [EDITED: "vitamin A"].
       An 8-ounce glass of milk, for example, contains 300 milligrams of calcium and other needed nutrients. But youngsters often prefer to drink soda pop or juice beverages.
       This may be especially true of girls who are entering puberty. Changes in the body may trigger concerns about weight gain.
       Another good source of calcium, cheese, is likely to be something that teenage boys enjoy. But fat-conscious young women may believe it has too much fat and calories.
       One way to help youngsters get the calcium they need is by having milk instead of soda on the table.
       But sometimes children just refuse to drink milk. Substitutes can include foods fortified with calcium, such as some brands of bread and orange juice. ({\b \i Editor's note}: For those who don't care to drink milk, it can be made more desirable prepared like a thick shake. Blend milk with added powdered milk, lots of ice and frozen bananas or papaya, etc., for added flavor. Great for kids too!)
       Broccoli and kale, both high in calcium, can also be included in meals.
       Among snacks, yogurt is high in calcium. An 8-ounce cup contains 300 to 400 milligrams.
       Children may enjoy milkshakes that have yogurt as a base and include blended fruits. Weight-conscious teens may accept them because yogurt has less fat than ice cream.

By Sandy Dyer and Janis Wood Catano, International Childbirth Association, Inc., 1991.
Everyone Needs Iron
       To be healthy and feel well, you need to eat a lot of different kinds of food. This is because your body needs a lot of different things in order to work well. Your body needs protein, fats and carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. These are called nutrients and are found in different kinds of foods.
       One of the nutrients your body needs is iron. Iron is a mineral. When your body is getting enough iron, you are more likely to feel well.
       When you don't get enough iron, you can develop a condition called iron deficiency. When you have iron deficiency:
       * You may feel tired all the time.
       * You may look pale and feel limp.
       * You may not feel like eating.
       * You may lose weight.
       * You may get colds and other infections more easily.
       ({\b \i Editor's note: }The above symptoms can also be indicative of other disorders as well, not just iron deficiency. So if symptoms continue after more iron intake, you could ask your doctor about it when you go for you regular prenatal checkup).

Pregnant Women Need More Iron
       When you are pregnant, you need even more iron than usual. This is because when you are pregnant, your body makes more blood. You need more blood because all of your baby's oxygen and food is carried in your blood. Your body uses iron to make this new blood. By the end of your pregnancy, you can have up to twice as much blood as you did before you got pregnant. Making all this blood takes a lot of iron.
       You need iron for another reason, too. In the last weeks of your pregnancy, your baby is storing up iron. When your baby is born, she should have enough iron stored in her body to last for six months. This is because the best food for a new baby is milk, and milk does not contain much iron.

How Can I Tell if I Need More Iron?
       Many women do not have enough iron stored in their body when they become pregnant. You are especially likely to be low in iron:
       * If you have been dieting to lose weight. When you are on a diet, you often don't eat enough food to get the iron you need.
       * If you don't eat well. If you eat a lot of sweets, cakes and fried foods, you are eating food that has a lot of fats, sugar and calories, but not much iron.
       * If your pregnancies are too close together. You need at least two years of good eating to replace the iron you use up during a pregnancy.
       * If you bleed heavily when you have your periods.

       Your doctor or midwife will check your blood to see if you have enough iron. Two tests that are often done are a hemoglobin test [EDITED: "hemoglobin is the iron-containing repiratory pigment in blood cells"] and a hematocrit test [EDITED: "the percentage by volume of packed red blood cells in a given sample of blood"].

What Should I Do to Get Enough Iron?
       The best way to get enough iron is to eat foods that have a lot of iron in them. There is no substitute for a healthy diet. Try to get the iron you need from the food you eat.
       If your blood tests show that you have iron deficiency, you may need iron pills to build up your iron supply. If you need these, you should take them.
       It is not a good idea to take iron pills if you don't really need them. This is because:
       * Iron pills can cause diarrhea, constipation or upset stomach.
       * Iron pills can prevent your body from taking in other nutrients that you need.
       * Taking pills you don't need is a waste of money.
       There is another important reason not to take iron pills unless you really need them. Taking pills can make you think that you are getting all the nutrients you need from the pills and so it doesn't matter what you eat. This is not true. What you eat is important whether you are taking iron pills or not. Your body needs about 50 different nutrients every day. An iron pill or a vitamin pill will give you only a few of them.

Will I Still Need Iron After the Baby Comes?
       You will always need iron, even after you've had your baby. [EDITED: "Choosing"] foods that are high in iron will help you to stay healthy.

Iron-Rich Foods
(From What to Eat When You're Expecting, by Arlene Eisenburg, Heidi Eisenburg Murkoff, and Sandee Eisenburg Hathaway, R.N., Workman Publishing, New York, 1986.)

       Iron is not only important when your body is losing blood, as when you're menstruating, it is also important when you have to manufacture extra blood, as in pregnancy. In fact, your body's demand for iron will never be greater than it is now [EDITED: "in pregnancy"]. (You probably need about twice as much iron when you are pregnant as you did before conception.) Orange or tomato juice will help your body utilize the iron [EDITED: "in foods"], since the vitamin C enhances the absorption. Small amounts of iron are found in most of the fruits, vegetables, grains and meats you eat daily.
       * Beef
       * Blackstrap molasses
       * Brewer's yeast
       * Carob flour or powder; baked goods made with them
       * Chick-peas (garbanzos), split peas, and other dried peas and beans
       * Dried fruit (raisins, apricots, prunes, peaches or currants)
       * Egg yolk
       * Jerusalem artichokes
       * Liver (beef and chicken) and other organ meats [EDITED: "Eat liver infrequently because it tends to be a storage area in beef for chemicals."]
       * Pumpkin seeds
       * Sardines (drained, if canned)
       * Soy beans, soy products (tofu, miso); baked goods made with soy flour
       * Spinach (all dark green leafy vegetables, such as: broccoli, collards, beet greens, kale, bok choy)
       * Spirulina (seaweed), dried
       * Whole grains [EDITED: "in breads or cereals, converted rice or brown rice"]


Questions on Pregnancy Diet and Weight Gain
Excerpts of a letter seeking counsel, from Kristy (of Zeb), now a young mother of 5, Family Care
       I'm writing about a trial I've gone through during this (third) pregnancy with my diet and weight gain. I've done some research and a lot of thinking and praying about it, and I think I know what the answer is, but I still want to write just for the sake of confirmation, and also in case any others may be going through the same thing. The situation is basically this: I'm 7½ months pregnant with my third child and I've gained 12 or more kilos so far. (My present weight is 76.4 kilos.) My doctor is alarmed by how much I've gained and has put me on a diet.
       I don't remember my weight gain with my first pregnancy, however I know it wasn't monumental, and it wasn't long after the birth before I had lost it all anyway. With my second child, Cherry, I went up to 79 kilos (which my doctor says he definitely won't allow this time). However, after Cherry was born I did gain a lot more weight, and sad to say, I went up to 80 kilos while nursing! That's definitely not what I'm trying to promote here, as I was certainly overweight at that point, and that was absolutely because of overeating--something which I am determined to never let happen to myself again. I eventually lost it, and was back to my normal weight, which goes from 60 to 65 kilos.
       The thing that has put me through a trial is that all of a sudden in this pregnancy others are so concerned about my weight gain, whereas in my other pregnancies that wasn't an issue at all. The issue then was, "Are you eating well enough? Do you need to eat more?"--Even to the point of serving extra protein foods, etc., for pregnant mothers. On one hand, I don't feel overconcern about weight gain is right. I have learned from experienced mothers that you shouldn't worry about gaining too much weight in pregnancy as long as you're eating well and not filling up on junk foods. It's more important that the baby grows healthily, and whatever extra weight you do gain you can work on losing afterwards. On the other hand, I do appreciate their concern, as the last thing I want to be is overweight again.
       My point is that I haven't been overeating or eating the wrong kinds of food, I've been very conscientious about my diet, following the diet suggestions from Childcare Handbook I. I even keep a little chart of what I'm eating to make sure I'm staying within the limits and still getting good nutrition, but I'm gaining over what is "accepted" in Childcare Handbook I. That didn't matter to me--because I knew the baby was healthy--until I started seeing the doctors and felt under pressure even from members of my Home to not gain more weight. Of course, I would like to stay within the limits. But I feel that it's more important for me to get enough protein and calcium and vitamins, and that as long as I'm not overdoing it, it's okay if I gain extra. I didn't even have to diet to lose my weight after previous pregnancies. I was nursing, so I just started eating smaller servings, stopped all the extra snacking, and got good get-outs, and I lost 20 kilos just like that.
       Also, I watched the video "What is that In Thy Hand" (GAP 029) about CCHB1, and it said that the weight gain issue was a little overemphasized in the CCHB. It said that we've learned since then to just let the Lord lead and make sure what we're eating is good quality food, and not to be so strict that you try to diet during pregnancy. So I guess that's the answer right there. However, the CCHB1 chart shown on the GAP video at that point said weight gain can even go "all the way" up to 30 pounds, which is 13 kilos. I've already gained almost all of that when I'm not finished with my pregnancy yet!
       When I first went to the doctor at only four months pregnant, he was already on my case about weight gain, and suggested quite an unrealistic diet of no starch whatsoever, no fat, no sweets, only skimmed milk, no other dairy products, no condiments, no salt, etc. ({\b \i Editor's note: }Unbalanced and not healthful.{\b \i )} At that point I was still in the throes of morning sickness and had no intention whatsoever of following his diet! I could barely eat anything without throwing up, and if what did the trick was gonna be a cheese sandwich, then I wanted to feel free to eat that. I felt his diet was unhealthy and against what Grandpa has taught us. In the Childcare Handbook, it says you need whole grains--up to four servings a day! I didn't feel I was gaining enough excess weight that I needed to be that concerned about it. Also the "starches" and "sweets" we eat are healthy whole grains and honey and molasses, not white refined flour, pastries, ice cream and white sugar, which the doctors probably expect.
       Also, I've been under the impression that skimmed milk is not suitable for pregnant and nursing mothers or children, as it says in CCHB1, because in taking out the fat they've also taken out some of the other needed nutrients in it. Is there any updated counsel on that? I would be happy to drink skim milk (since I know whole milk is fattening) if I could be assured that it's still doing all the good of whole milk without the fat. (See page 22 of this FSM.)
       I was already really going through it with morning sickness, and having to worry about my weight was just an added burden. (Another "problem" that comes up is what the Home serves for meals might not always be conducive to watching your weight. For example, a lot of foods are stretched with mayonnaise or white sauces, we serve fried foods, etc.)
       After the first time I saw my doctor I decided not to follow his diet, but just to try to cut down a bit on what I ate and to see what happened. I already didn't feel like I was overeating, but I decided just to see what I could do, such as only taking one piece of bread for breakfast instead of two, having an apple with my cheese for snack instead of bread, only taking a small spoon of rice for dinner instead of a larger one, serving smaller portions, etc., but still being sure to drink enough milk, and eat at least a little starch at each meal. Well, I gained two kilos that month, and the next month I gained four kilos. I know that's a lot to gain in one month, a kilo a week, but I also know I wasn't overeating.
       After that I switched to another doctor. He's a very nice and friendly fellow, and I generally like him a lot. However, from the very first visit he was already on my case about my weight, since I told him I was 65 kilos before I got pregnant, and at that point I was 75 kilos (at seven months pregnant). He said 10 kilos is the limit of what you should gain, but 12 is the maximum, so he only wanted me to gain two more kilos--meaning one kilo per month. I asked him if he could recommend a specific diet, and I actually liked his diet a lot more than the one my first doctor recommended. It was a lot more realistic, so I tried to comply. He wanted me to come back in 15 days, just to get weighed to make sure I was staying within the limit.
       For his diet he suggested: No starch, or at least very little. He said a little toast is okay, or just a little rice, etc. He said I can keep on eating proteins, cheese, milk, etc., as long as I'm careful and don't eat super fattening meats. He said to cut out sugar and sweets. He said, in fact, that if all I ate was vegetables and fruits it wouldn't hurt me and would probably do me good. ({\b \i Editor's note:} Uh-oh! An imbalanced diet--doesn't sound good!)
       The doctor also told me I should eat more frequently, filling up on vegetables and fruit so I wouldn't be so hungry for starches and proteins, and to drink lots of water. It sounded okay, so I decided, "Well, I like him and I want to cooperate with him, so I'll try for the first 15 days and see what happens, then I'll reconsider." And I really did try for those 15 days. I didn't follow it totally in that I usually ate at least one starch per day, but a small one, either one piece of toast or two tablespoons of rice, etc., as opposed to one starch at each meal that I had been eating. I also completely cut out sweets in any form (no sweetened decaf, no honey in my yogurt, etc.) and only had one tablespoon of molasses with vitamin C every day as my only sweet (which I've since stopped). I also continued eating only small portions of protein and majoring on vegetables and fruit.
       However, by the next time I visited him I had gained 1.4 kilos in 15 days, and he was pretty upset. He said I'm going to have to cut down more. I was in tears by the time I left his office, because I really didn't and don't know what to do!
       So the point of this whole letter is, what is the balance?! If I follow his advice now it would be pretty extreme! After researching it even further in our pubs, and going to the Word on it I pretty much decided that it's unwise to try to diet during pregnancy! ({\b \i Editor's note:} Amen! The doctor's diet described above is not sufficient for the needs of your developing baby, especially in the last trimester!) I'm still not sure what to do, even though I guess I know what the right answer is (to just not worry about weight and the pressure the doctor gives me). The thing is, I want to keep on good terms with the doctor so that he'll be willing to comply with what I want in the delivery. I'm really discouraged about even seeing doctors at all now, when I know what they're counseling me isn't even according to the Word! Also, thank the Lord, I'm in very good shape, I'm doing the PG exercises daily, as well as getting good vigorous safe-for-PGs get-outs whenever possible.
       It might be helpful to have some guidelines on this whole diet aspect and how far it's even healthy and wise to take it. We do certainly want to be mindful of our weight. I'm not slamming that at all. If anything I'm going to the other extreme of following too strict a diet. In cases where the doctor tells you to watch your weight too much, I guess there are the options to try to comply as much as possible, but to follow the Word on it, and trust the Lord! The PG moms can ask the kitchen to separate our protein foods in cases where they're going to fix it up in some more fattening way. ({\b \i Editor's note:} We pray the following article and others in our pubs help to answer your questions. Thank the Lord you looked to the Word, and not just to the doctor's counsel. You're absolutely right, a strict weight-loss diet is {\ul \i not} a good idea in pregnancy. As mentioned in the introduction to this FSM, be sure to pray and hear from the Lord about these matters, and seek godly counsel, and not just blindly follow the doctors' advice--even if they're sweet and friendly.)


Nutritional Needs in the Last Trimester
       Nutrition is especially important in the last trimester when the brain cells are developing. The mother needs a diet high in calcium and protein to develop the brain cells. The weight you gain gives you calories to burn in labor. A good pregnancy diet is good for always, for you, your child and your family. "What I ingest today, the baby eats. If I skip a meal, the baby does too." Would you let your baby of one year old skip a meal? (From "Focus on Labor and Delivery: A Birth Class Series " video, by the Birth Sense Corporation, Duxbury, MA, USA)

(From Let's Have Healthy Children, by Adelle Davis, a Signet Book by the New American Library, 1981.)
       It is now realized that millions of American children are below par mentally and physically because expectant mothers have been kept on diets too low in calories during their pregnancies.
       Big babies are healthier babies. Research shows that [EDITED: "American"] babies weighing 7½ to 8½ pounds [EDITED: "3.4-3.9 kilos"] are in general healthier, smarter and happier than those whose birth weight was 5 ½ pounds [EDITED: "2.5 kilos"] or under. There are, of course, many exceptions. When compared with thousands of tiny babies, however, few large ones are born prematurely, are stillborn or die soon after birth, have malformations or cerebral palsy and/or are mentally retarded. For example, in a Harvard study, when the mothers' diets were excellent, their babies averaged 8½ pounds; their deliveries were relatively easy; and though several women gained as much as 40 pounds, none had toxemia or gave birth to stillborn children. When diets were poor, however, 44 percent of the women who gained less than 20 pounds developed toxemia; their deliveries were prolonged and difficult, despite the fact their babies averaged under 6 pounds. Other research reveals similar findings.
       Birth weight and intelligence: Children born at term but with low birth weight are often worse off than the premature ones; they have the same disorders but frequently more of them and more severe ones. Usually, the smaller the baby, the lower the IQ. Among underprivileged populations in the US and elsewhere, diets are notoriously inadequate and low-birth-rate-babies born at term are as inferior in intelligence as were those of wartime Europe.
       When reducing diets are adhered to during pregnancy, the gains are small and the infants' birth weights are low, but innumerable studies have shown that deliveries are difficult, painful and prolonged. A rapid gain of 3 to 7 pounds in a week may indicate toxemia; such a gain can occur when almost no food is eaten and never results from a high calorie intake. There is much damaging evidence that by recommending inadequate reducing diets, restricting salt intake, and giving diuretics and amphetamines, all with the intent of preventing normal weight gain, obstetricians are not only helping to produce undersized and unhealthy babies, but also are causing pregnant women to suffer from numerous abnormalities, including toxemia.
       Women allowed to gain only 15 pounds [EDITED: "during pregnancy"] can secrete little or no breast milk. Approximately a third of the total weight gained (or 8 to 10 pounds), is stored for the sole purpose of being secreted during nursing.
       Birth weight and maternal gain: The way to get these heavier, healthier, happier, smarter infants seems to be merely by allowing pregnant women to gain more than has been customary for many years. A study of the birth weights of 10,000 babies, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health in cooperation with several hospitals, showed that when women were allowed to gain 25 pounds or more during pregnancy, their infants weighed more at birth; and there were fewer premature births, stillbirths, and deaths soon after birth, and much better growth and performance during the first year. The infants' birth weights increased in proportion to the mothers' pregnancy gains, regardless of the mothers' earlier weight. Without exception, doctors conducting such studies have emphasized the following point: The traditional obstetrical practice of keeping weight gain to a minimum should be immediately abandoned.


Comments on Weight Gain and Updates on CCHB1!
Notes from Rose Midwife
       Our young mothers are often so concerned about their weight they don't eat properly nor gain the weight they need to in pregnancy. Most girls under-eat so they won't get fat, or some over-exercise to try to lose weight or to over-compensate for what they do eat, because they're afraid of weight gain and stretch marks. On the other hand, some PGs don't get enough get-out. If a young girl is underweight before her pregnancy, she can get too thin after the baby is born.
       I have often found a wrong attitude with the teen and YA moms.--They say they don't want to get "fat" when pregnant. That's what makes these YA mommies sick too: They don't eat properly. Midwives let you gain half to one pound a week, so it is fine to gain even as much as 40 pounds [EDITED: "18 kilos"] altogether. Some mothers gain more, and have good labors, healthy babies and good postnatal recoveries.
       It's good to know that you can lose weight afterwards quite easily since breast feeding burns up so many calories. Many mothers look and shape up even better than they looked before they were PG after they have a baby.

Updates on CCHB1
       Our new mothers read the CCHB1, but it's sometimes hard to know what is now outdated. They may hear that one certain part is outdated, then they throw out all the rest of the good counsel. I would like for all our Family to know that our CCHB1 is excellent on pregnancy and childbirth; it's really all you basically need to know, all in one book!

The main things that need updating in CCHB1 are:
       * better nutrition and more protein foods in pregnancy, especially for teen or young mothers;
       * drinking skim milk is fine for pregnancy and those watching their weight, and 1% and 2% milk, if available, is also fine to drink;
       * more variation on natural childbirth methods, besides just using the Lamaze method; (See FS11 article on the Bradley Method of childbirth, pg. 278.)
       * that gaining more weight than 20 or 25 pounds in pregnancy is okay.
       Our teen and YA moms especially need to know that you can gain more weight than the very low weight gain stressed in Deborah's class in CCHB1 (pages 88-89, 93 and again on pages 28 and 205). Research and available information have changed in these areas since the time CCHB1 was pubbed, but the rest of the book is great. I have often said that if our girls just read CCHB1 and nothing else, they should do fine, as long as they know about these main areas that need updating.

Comments on Skim Milk
       If skim milk is provisioned or preferred, it's okay to drink in pregnancy. Skim milk is high in protein (as much as whole milk) and is fine to drink if you eat fat with it. It is low in fat, but that's okay, as there is still enough fat in a normal diet to absorb the calcium. If you have just a glass of skim milk alone, you don't get all the calcium and don't absorb it, but if you have skim milk with eggs at breakfast, or with a tablespoon of peanut butter, or in cereal, for example, those foods provide the fat.       Of course, whole or 2% milk is fine to drink. I've known some YA moms in the States who have gone overboard on drinking too much milk, to where the excessive intake of milk kept them from eating a properly balanced diet and getting the other nutrients needed. It's not wrong to drink a lot of milk, but if a mother is drinking so much milk she doesn't have room to eat the other foods she needs, this can be a problem.


Weight Gain
       It is normal to put on between 20 and 30 pounds [EDITED: "9.5-13. kilos"] in pregnancy. Some women put on more, with no ill effects. Since different women gain weight at different rates it is impossible to be dogmatic about how much weight you should put on. Responsible medical opinion now is that "arbitrary weight restriction is potentially harmful to both mother and baby." (From The Complete Handbook of Pregnancy and Childbirth-- New edition fully revised and expanded , by Sheila Kitzenger, Alfred A. Knoph, New York, 1994.)

MILK IN THE PG DIET (Book Excerpts)
       (From What to Eat When You Are Expecting, by Arlene Eisenburg, Heidi Eisenburg Murkoff, and Sandee Eisenburg Hathaway, R.N., Workman Publishing, New York,1986.)
       Milk is a very rich source of calcium: Each eight-ounce glass provides a full 25 per cent of a pregnant woman's daily calcium requirement. It is also naturally abundant in riboflavin and fortified with vitamins A and D. In addition, it is a fairly good protein source (three glasses or the equivalent in dry or [EDITED: "unsweetened"] evaporated milk can be counted as one protein serving).
       Whole milk, though it contains all of the desired nutrients, also contains considerable amounts of fat, making it high in calories. Skim milk (80 to 100 calories per cup, to whole milk's 150) or 1 percent-fat milk (about 100 calories per cup) are efficient choices, as is low-fat buttermilk.
       Powdered and evaporated milk are two of the best ways a mother-to-be can supply her unborn baby with adequate calcium without ever drinking a glass of milk. [EDITED: "Add either to your meals in sauces, ice cream, custards, etc."] Each third a cup (or five tablespoons) of the dry variety (all the water has been removed), or half a cup of the evaporated (part of the water has been removed), is equivalent to an eight-ounce glass of full-fluid milk.
       Low-fat yogurt [EDITED: "with fruit, sugar substitutes or flavor added"]: Though it supplies many of the same nutrients as plain yogurt when fruited or flavored (but less when frozen), its whopping sugar content makes this kind of yogurt a poor nutritional choice. Plain low-fat yogurt is, however, a choice of great dietary distinction. High in protein (1 ½ cups equals 1 protein serving), low in calories, and cup for cup, as rich in calcium (sometimes richer) and many other vitamins and minerals as milk, it should frequently find its way off your refrigerator shelf and into your meals.


Increasing Your Potential for Normal Birth: Nutrition and Exercise!
       (Excerpted from the book Silent Knife--Cesarean Prevention, by Nancy Wainer Cohen and Lois J. Esther. Bergin and Garvey Publishers, inc., 1983.)
       It is each woman's responsibility to create the optimum environment--physically, spiritually, and emotionally--in which to give birth safely. Each of you can set the stage for actively giving birth or for having your baby delivered. Ultimately, the choice is yours.
       It is fairly common knowledge that farmers will not breed their livestock unless the animals are in excellent health. They know that if you breed what isn't healthy, you are bound to get offspring that aren't healthy either. They take time to condition their animals before allowing them to conceive and bear young. It is a fact that how we eat prior to conception influences the health and well being of our developing babies. Yet most of us spend little, if any time getting ourselves ready to conceive in the best possible state.
       Good nutrition affects how we eat, sleep, act and think. It affects everything about us--our work, our moods, our ability to relax, our sex lives, our patience with our children--everything. It affects how well we grow our babies and how well our uteri contract. It affects the elasticity of our cervix, and our stamina during labor. However, many physicians pay little or no attention to a woman's diet, except for chastising her for gaining too much weight or telling her to restrict her salt intake (harmful advice on both counts). Most physicians we have questioned admit that they know very little about nutrition and that their training in this area was less than adequate. Additionally, many of them have little interest in the subject.
       Our bodies do so much work when we are pregnant! It may not look as if a woman is doing anything, but even when she is sitting quietly, SHE IS GROWING A BABY!!!
       To grow a baby well, a mother needs a lot of really good, healthy food. Most women are amazed at the volume of food they consume during pregnancy. "I've always had a healthy appetite," said one woman, "but this was phenomenal." Many women ask how much weight they should gain. For some, 30-35 pounds (13-16 kilos) are enough. For others, 35 pounds (16 kilos) are not nearly adequate. To us, the best rule of thumb is to eat whenever you are hungry (so move all of the furniture into the kitchen and camp out there--who cares?), but eat only nutritious foods. That means, if you are unable to sleep in the middle of the night because you are hungry, you need to get up and have something to eat. Right at that particular moment, your baby may be growing her toes or ear lobes. She may need nourishment at that very moment in order to do so! Once again: listen to your body, eat when you are physically hungry, and eat a variety of whole, natural foods. Although we live in a culture that values "thin," we must leave that look to models and actresses, and make sure that we take care of our nutritional needs during pregnancy.
       Some women lose their appetites when they are pregnant. If you haven't eaten for many hours, your baby has no way of obtaining what she needs for her rapidly growing and changing body. "Hey, Mom, could you send down an orange? And while you're at it, how about a big bowl of granola, smothered with fruit and topped with yogurt? You see, I'm growing some new organs today, and that's hard work. Wait until tomorrow! Then I'm growing legs!" We know that for baby, growing arms, or legs, is easier when good food is provided at regular intervals throughout the pregnancy.
       Some women who are planning to have their babies vaginally after a cesarean are told by their physicians to keep their weight down. Other women, concerned about the size of their pelvises, eat sparingly during their pregnancies. They are told, or they believe, that if they grow small babies, they will have better chances of delivering "from below." This is dangerous nonsense! If you grow a small baby, you may also grow a baby that will not be strong enough to withstand the energy of labor. Your uterus will become malnourished, not having received all that it needs to contract strongly and powerfully. Your placenta will not function properly. You may become weakened yourself. All of you--you, your body, and your baby--must be healthy and strong. The size of the baby is not the most important factor in whether or not you will be able to deliver vaginally, and you must not try to keep your baby small. Babies' heads are designed to mold, and your pelvis is designed to open and change shape in order to accommodate your baby. Your baby and your body can only do the things they were designed to do if they are healthy and strong. Birth weight is only partially determined by heredity; good nutrition is what tips the scales to health. It is true that larger babies have a better chance of being born safely and of living well, and you owe it to yourself, your body, your baby and your family to eat well.

Father's Nutritive Role
       It is also fairly well known that you can't breed a healthy cow with a sick bull and come out with a top-notch calf; that in order to insure that the calf will be healthy, both parents must be strong and healthy. We are still amazed at the number of men who tune out information on nutrition, thinking it is the woman's concern and has nothing to do with them. You men contribute to one-half of that baby!
       It is extremely important for the man to come to the birth as well-rested and relaxed as possible and in as good health as possible. Some husbands are in such poor nutritional shape that psychologically they are out to lunch. Without realizing it, they are not emotionally there for their wives in labor. The communicative relationship between a woman and a man at the time of birth is important. A woman's senses are highly charged by labor. She quickly picks up other "energies," although not always on a conscious level. In her new state of consciousness she is sometimes vulnerable, impressionable. She may pick up her man's exhaustion, his need to have her hurry and have this baby so that he can relax, get home, and get to bed. She may interpret those signals as a lack of support and begin to feel pressured and abandoned. This anxiety can hinder her ability to relax and give birth. So husbands, take note: you, too, are helping to birth your baby!

A Few Nutrition Tips
       * Eat foods in as complete and natural a state as possible. Whole wheat over white, fresh fruit over cooked, frozen vegetables over canned (and fresh, of course, over frozen), for example.
       * Read labels. Learn about the things that you are putting into your body. You'll be surprised to learn what else is in the peanut-butter jar, for example, besides peanuts.
       * Eliminate [EDITED: "white"] sugar from your diet or cut down as much as possible. Use honey or molasses as a sweetener instead. Sugar wreaks havoc with the body's glucose-regulating system. It's like a drug in many ways, altering moods, affecting sleep, and ruining the appetite.
       * Watch out for caffeine (coffee, tea, diet sodas, chocolate)--it depresses the blood sugar and acts as a diuretic (tending to increase the discharge of urine). For nursing mothers, it can contribute to a diminished milk supply. Excess caffeine consumption has been linked to birth defects.
       * Create new menus! Pregnancy is a time of great change, and it's easy to feel bored with the same old standbys. Pregnancy is also a creative process, so create!
       * Get as many of the necessary nutrients as you can from your diet. Vitamins are supplements to a good diet, not replacements for one. Since synthetic vitamins usually have artificial colorings, perfumes, and additives, those of you who do take supplements might wish to take a natural brand. Some women who have had cesareans take vitamin E as a result of research done by Dr. Evan Shute on its effects on the healing of scar tissue.
       * Some herbs may be useful during pregnancy and birth, but many are potentially very dangerous. Don't use them unless you are fully informed about them.
       * If you indulge in something you know to be less than ideal for your developing baby, why not make up for it by eating it with something of value? For example, a woman who called herself "the original Cookie Monster" made certain that she always had a large glass of milk or juice and a piece of fruit with (or before) her cookies. That way, she filled up sooner, ate less cookies, and provided her baby with some wholesome foods, too. Another woman began to add wheat germ, bran, and fresh strawberries to her ice cream.
       * Remember that, with few exceptions, everything crosses the placenta. Alcohol, cigarette smoke, diuretics and junk food are all harmful. Aspirin (which can have an adverse effect on the fetus and which can interfere with blood-clotting mechanisms during labor) and dental analgesics (such as Novacaine) have also been implicated as dangerous during pregnancy. Any drug that you take will find its way to your unborn child. Be careful about anything you put into your body!
       You owe it to yourself and to your baby to begin your pregnancy with the healthiest body you can have. You owe it to yourself and to your baby to come to labor and delivery well rested, strong, and hearty. We urge you to make decisions that will foster your good health, for in so doing, there is much to be gained.

Exercise During Pregnancy
       If you knew that nine months from now you had to represent [EDITED: "your country"] in the Olympics, we imagine you'd start preparing immediately. Well, you aren't going to represent the country in an athletic event, but you are going to have a baby, and the better you feel, the more confident about your body you become, the better your chances for a positive outcome. If you are already quite pregnant, we'd still recommend that you begin now by taking walks, for example, or dancing or swimming. You can start out gradually, and do a little more each day.
       Many of the women with whom we have worked believe that one of the reasons they were able to have their babies naturally was that they were well prepared for labor physically.
       Last week, when we were talking about exercise in class, Marilyn pointed to her enlarging uterus and commented, "Surely, I must be ready for the Olympics by now: carrying this around all day must be equivalent to at least eleven miles of jogging!" While carrying your growing baby around can be as tiring as exercising, it is not the exhilarating kind of aerobic exercise that thrills every sagging muscle and wakes up all those eager-to-be-alive cells all over your body.
       We are basically a sedentary culture. Our bodies just don't get the amount of physical exercise they need, and we, in turn, have no understanding of or appreciation for what our bodies are capable of doing.
       While you exercise, you sweat, your muscles ache, you might feel tired, discouraged, or cranky. Often it's not until the exercising is over that you feel terrific and proud and glad you made the effort. When you are having a baby, you sweat, your muscles ache, you might feel tired, discouraged, or cranky. But when that's all over, you feel equally terrific and proud and very glad that you did it.
       Lack of demanding daily activity is one of the many reasons why modern woman has to "groan and struggle in the obstetrics wing." Lack of physical exercise in combination with our modern diet contributes significantly to the degeneration of contemporary health. Over the course of time, the amount of stress women experience during labor hasn't changed, but our ability to withstand it certainly has.
       Each of you has to assess your own body and life-style and come up with the activity that is right for you. (In addition, there are specific exercises to prevent or improve pregnancy-related complaints, such as chronic backache, leaking urine, or weak abdominal walls.)
       Nancy (the coauthor of this book) began to swim during her third pregnancy. Her first day she barely made it to the other end of the pool, gasping for dear life. She couldn't even swim back. The next day wasn't very much better, except that she promised herself she'd make it back. Day by day, things improved. At the end of two weeks, she could swim several laps with a rest in between. Finally, she made ten laps without stopping. She figured ten laps was practically swim team material, right? So she stuck with that for a little bit. She began to notice that on the days that she didn't swim, she felt tired, achy, and full of complaints. On the days she swam, she felt energetic, happy and more even-tempered.
       One day, as she was doing her seventh or eighth lap, a little old lady bumped into her and yelled, "Watch yourself, girlie! I gotta finish my laps!" The woman proceeded to zip across the pool. Nancy continued to watch in amazement. The woman was old, really old, but she kept zipping back and forth. Twenty minutes later she hopped out of the pool and into the sauna. That same morning, Nancy saw her riding her bicycle.--What incentive! Nancy pushed harder. On days when she didn't think she could possibly swim another stroke, she continued swimming. She talked to herself the whole time: "You swam this distance yesterday, you can swim it today." She'd sing songs, think up the week's menu--anything she could do to distract herself so that she could make it.
       And surprise! She didn't turn into a prune. She didn't kill herself. She began to feel terrific every time she came out of the water. She really knew what people were talking about when they said they felt like a million dollars. Nancy says:
       Some days I loved swimming, some days I hated it. I only knew that I felt better, slept better, and had more energy than I had in years. My pregnant body felt lighter and more easy to carry than ever before. After a while, I no longer had to distract myself to get through each lap. I began to relax, even as I continued my pace, and to think about my body. I'd focus on different parts of my body, and concentrate on how each felt when I swam faster or slower. Sometimes I'd listen to my breathing. I'd imagine each breath carrying oxygen to the parts of my body that needed it. I also began thinking almost exclusively about the baby growing inside me. I wondered what it felt like to have Mommy swimming and kicking her legs. I'd try out names: I'd swim up the lane with one name in mind, and back to the other end with another. By the way, in the earlier months when I was feeling some queasiness, I found that swimming in the pool completely eliminated it.
       "Thinking about what my body was doing, really concentrating on the work that it was doing, made swimming easier. I found that thinking about the baby also seemed to make the time pass more quickly. I used the time in the water, which was just about the only free and quiet time I had each day, to think about my life and to clear my head. I'd speak to my baby and listen to what my baby wanted me to know. Swimming became not only a physical exercise, but an important mental one as well. It was fun to see people's reactions when I was swimming in the pool just days away from my due date. It was even more interesting to see their reactions when I was overdue. Everyone gets nutsy around very pregnant ladies. I even went down for a swim in early labor. It helped me feel refreshed and revitalized, instead of cranky and impatient waiting for labor to pick up. I went right back to swimming very soon after Andrea was born."
       When Lois [EDITED: "the coauthor of this book"] learned of the benefits of squatting, she decided that she would get her leg muscles in shape for this unaccustomed position. With a mid-August due date, she chose gardening as a good way to practice squatting. For the May planting she squatted and kept falling over like one of those little wooden play family figures most of our children have around the house. By June she was more like a Weeble [EDITED: "toy"], rolling a bit from side to side, but managing to stay upright for most of the weeding. By July she was squatting comfortably for all her gardening, and did so right up until the day she gave birth.
       Lois also raised a few eyebrows by riding her bike around the neighborhood with a 38-pound, almost-four-year-old in the tot seat, right through her pregnancy. The exercise paid off--soon after her very quick labor and birth, she was able to take up jogging with a fair amount of ease.
       We are concerned about physicians who ask women to stop exercising two to three weeks before their due date. After a week or so of not exercising, you begin to lose the strength and stamina that has been built up over the course of time. And what if you're two weeks late? It would then have been more than a month without exercise! Also, most women find they sleep much better when they have exercised, and certainly, during those last weeks, it's wonderful to be able to sleep well and wake up refreshed and relaxed.
       It's important to find out why a physician wants you to stop exercising early, and to determine whether the reason is valid. We have noted that the physician who encourages a woman to continue exercising is apt to be an athlete himself, who understands the benefits, while those who insist that a woman stop are often not involved in any exercise program themselves.
       Dr. Charles Kimball tells us that "prenatal physical activities that provide enjoyment and recreation help endorphin mechanisms to dominate the autonomic nervous system and to suppress depressive, anxiety-producing catecholamines." [EDITED: "Endorphins are hormones found mainly in the brain that reduce the sensation of pain and affect emotions."] Translated, that means that exercise increases your endorphin level, which increases relaxation and reduces pain.
       So let's get moving!

Reaping the Rewards
       In Spiritual Midwifery, Stephen [EDITED: "the author"] says: If all your life you never do anything heavy, there are certain passages in life that are heavy. Having a baby, for instance is one. If you've been a total [EDITED: "couch potato"] all your life, they're going to have to knock you out when you have your kid, because you're going to be too chicken to have it. And if you do something that builds character ahead of time you'll have enough character that you'll have that kid, and it will be a beautiful experience for you.
       Making responsible, caring, positive decisions about your body and your health is just one of many ways to build character.
       When you are in labor thinking that you'll never be able to get through another contraction, you can remember that extra lap that you thought you couldn't do--but you did. You can remember all the good food you ate, which created a terrific baby, a great uterus, a yielding cervix, and a stretchy perineum. You can call upon all the feelings of pride, confidence, and accomplishment that you have found in yourself as a result of eating well and exercising. Knowing that you have developed a strong, healthy body that works well under stress and strenuous activity will help you to feel ready, willing, and able to work with your body and actively give birth to your baby.

Concern for our Young PG Moms' Diets
"We Are Our Mothers' Keepers!"
Excerpts from a report from Kristy (of Zeb), Family Care
       The Lord's been impressing on me the importance of delving into the Word on my ministry of overseeing the kitchen, not just going along with how it's always been done, how others did it before, etc.
       Having a YA PG here in our Home (still nursing and being newly pregnant at the same time), was what prompted me to go to the Word and see what was the standard laid out in the Letters. I'd been so confused about this pregnancy-diet issue, the conflicting standards I've seen and experienced, etc. Finally I just sat down with the pubs myself. That's when the Lord really spoke to me about not just running to people or falling back on experiences, but to see what the Word says. It takes faith to step out and change things just going by what you read when that's not how it's been done, but that's what we have to do if we want to raise our dietary standard.
       So the conclusion I came to is that we do need to change our attitudes to be more accommodating to the pregnant and nursing mothers. We, as the kitchen department, really failed in not feeding our other older mother in the Home better during her pregnancy, to the point that the doctor was concerned about the baby's health because she wasn't gaining any weight. And even though we're needing to adjust our menu because food is more expensive, we can cut out less important things so that we can afford to feed our pregnant and nursing mothers the frequent high-protein snacks that they need. Also, K., our YA PG, has not been "demanding" at all, as she's not sick. She's even concerned about dieting! ({\b \i Editor's note:} A golden rule in pregnancy: Pregnancy is {\ul \i not} the time to diet; never lose weight in pregnancy. Starve yourself and you starve your baby!) But still, in the Letters it says that even if not hungry, and even throughout the whole pregnancy (not just in the first three months--that was a revelation to me) PGs need to eat a good high-protein snack every two or three hours. It also stressed how the cook should be helpful and accommodating, not stingy or reluctant. (This was a trial for me when I was pregnant, if the kitchen personnel were strict about what foods I could eat.)
       So we made a list of things the PGs can get at any time without asking, such as eggs, white cheese, yogurt, granola, fruit, etc., and things that they can have, but need to ask for first. Also, we will try to make extra healthful protein snacks to have on hand, such as egg custard, milkshake pep-up drinks, peanut butter balls, etc.
       I think why we and probably other Homes are failing in this is financial reasons (for which we need more faith), and also because we lack time or personnel to stop and make the extra nourishing food our PGs need.
       From what I've read and even experienced, that seems to be the standard from Mama's house, and I know that at Mama's house they're very saving and careful budget-wise. I specifically remember that (from when I visited their Home when I was younger), but I also remember how they went out of their way to make sure the PGs and the children were well-fed. So even though we need to learn to be more saving and careful with our overall kitchen budget, we can't take that out of the PGs and kids' diets.
       The issue of "spoiling" the mothers is kind of like when a baby is sick. You have to spoil the baby in order to nurse him back to health. Then once baby is healthy you can work on "un-spoiling" him. So even if the PG girls do get somewhat spoiled, it's better to lean to that side than to have them underfed. I guess that's why we have to continually reassess and pray about things, so we don't keep on doing (or not doing) a thing just because it's been done before, and to be Spirit-led.
Love, Kristy
       ({\b \i Editor's} {\b \i note:} Good for you that you go to the Word for your answers! We hope the next article, with more counsel from Rose Midwife, will help to answer yours and others' questions about caring for our veteran mommies who have had a number of pregnancies, as well as our new teen and YA moms.)

Preparing Your Body Before Pregnancy
More on Family Nutrition
Excerpts of an interview with Rose Midwife
       Question: We have so many mothers who have already had many children, surely we have learned from their experiences of what they could have done to improve their health. How can our new teen and YA girls who are not yet pregnant improve their health? How does prenatal care start before pregnancy?
       Rose: The way that you eat now, before pregnancy, is going to benefit your overall health once you get pregnant. Some teen girls are into skipping meals, or they're into eating small amounts, and that's not good. It's better to build good habits such as eating at every meal and eating normal amounts. They don't have to have seconds, they don't have to have snacks if they don't want them, but they should eat three well-balanced meals daily. Getting good exercise is going to make a difference too, because then their body will be healthier when they become pregnant. If their body's run down and not so healthy when they get pregnant, it'll be difficult to get healthier during the pregnancy.
       A teen's body is still growing, so it's very important that our teen girls realize that and take care of themselves. Many of them reach their full height by age 12 or 13 and then they think, "Well, I'm not growing any more." But different body organs are still often growing right up until they're 21. It's hard for them to believe that, because they don't see any outside changes.

       Question: So suddenly becoming concerned about nutrition and getting exercise when you realize you're pregnant is sort of a Johnny-come-lately situation, right?
       Rose: Well, it's better than not doing it at all. It's much better if our girls get in the habit before. Once our girls get married or start having full sex they should start eating more like pregnant mommies so that their bodies are in good condition if they should get pregnant. It's also important to eat real well after they've had a child, and are nursing. When they stop nursing, they might soon get pregnant again. It's a matter of building good habits; all mothers should want to keep up those healthy habits and keep eating well and not just forsake it and think, "Oh, I'm not pregnant anymore, so I'm going to quit eating well."

Nutrition When Nursing
       Another interesting point about nutrition is that mothers have to eat better when nursing than when pregnant. Our nursing moms sometimes don't get the care they need at all. When the baby is inside it takes the nutrition first, and the mother's body gets the leftovers, but when the baby is outside, the mom's body takes first, and the nursing baby gets the leftovers. Since we're generally full-time nursers, and we don't feed our babies solid food at an early age, they're actually just living on leftovers of what the nursing mother has eaten. This is all the more reason to make sure our nursing mothers are eating very well!

       Question: So, when nursing, should you eat as much protein or different foods as in pregnancy, or even more?
       Rose: More! More protein. And don't go on a diet. Some of our moms will cut out eating starch completely, but what happens is they have a lot of milk, but their babies are skinny. The babies don't gain weight like they should because the nursing moms are not eating enough calories to put enough fat in their breast milk. So the baby grows some and he may look okay, but he doesn't have that nice healthy look and he is underweight.
       You don't want to drink caffeine while you're nursing because it automatically destroys your milk. Your milk supply goes down, the baby doesn't sleep well, and mommy doesn't sleep well. Aspirin is not good to take either; Tylenol, maybe, but it's better to take two calcium tablets for headaches, etc. (with a glass of milk, which helps the body absorb the calcium).


(From Bottom Line magazine, article by Dr. Barry Herman)
       To wait until the pregnancy test is positive before making [EDITED: "nutritional"] changes is not good. That's like preparing a meal by dumping all the ingredients in a bowl, and reading the recipe afterward. The time to read the recipe is before you mix the ingredients together. And the time to prepare for pregnancy is before you conceive.
       The fetus is most vulnerable very early in pregnancy--including the weeks before you know you're pregnant. Most organ systems are formed within eight to 12 weeks of conception--and most birth defects occur during that period. I suggest to my patients that they view pregnancy as a 12-month process that begins when they first think about becoming pregnant. ({\b \i Editor's note:} The point here is that a woman prepare her body before she conceives, by eating good, nutritious, balanced meals.)
       Nutrition--An undernourished mother -- and that could include a seemingly healthy woman who is dieting to keep her weight down--is more likely to have a baby whose growth is retarded. There is nothing mysterious about eating properly during pregnancy. You don't have to weigh or measure your food. Eat a balanced diet, with a variety of foods from the major food groups. Especially important are: Iron, folic acid, protein and calcium.
       Excess alcohol during pregnancy is known to be harmful to the fetus [DELETED] but we don't know at what quantity it presents a problem. An occasional drink may not be dangerous, but to be on the safe side, I recommend that my patients avoid alcohol completely during pregnancy.
       Exercise--A woman who works out regularly can continue to exercise throughout her pregnancy. While there's no evidence that exercising will make the fetus any healthier, exercise does benefit the mother. A physically fit mother may also be better able to tolerate the strenuous physical demands of labor or lower the risk of complications.
       If you work out, make these modifications in your exercise program:

       * Don't wear warm clothes while exercising.
       * While exercising get fresh air and good ventilation.
       * Reduce the length of your workouts to between 15 and 30 minutes.
       * Reduce the intensity of your workout. Don't push yourself until you are huffing and puffing--you should have enough breath left to talk. Keep your heart rate under 140 beats per minute.
       * Avoid saunas and hot tubs.


[EDITED: "End"]

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